TLR4 Antibody (MTS510) [Alexa Fluor® 405]

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Product Details

Summary
Reactivity MuSpecies Glossary
Applications Flow, Flow-CS
Clone
MTS510
Clonality
Monoclonal
Host
Rat
Conjugate
Alexa Fluor 405

TLR4 Antibody (MTS510) [Alexa Fluor® 405] Summary

Immunogen
This TLR4 Antibody (MTS510) was developed by immunizing rats with the Ba/F3 cell line expressing mouse TLR4 and MD-2 (Akashi et al, 2000).
Specificity
In FA, the antibody blocks activation of monocytes with LPS (Akashi et al. 2000). This antibody preferentially recognizes TLR4-MD-2 complex than of TLR4 alone. The optimal condition has to be determined for individual experiments.
Isotype
IgG2a Kappa
Clonality
Monoclonal
Host
Rat
Gene
TLR4
Purity
Protein G purified
Innovator's Reward
Test in a species/application not listed above to receive a full credit towards a future purchase.

Applications/Dilutions

Dilutions
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Flow (Cell Surface)
Theoretical MW
95.7 kDa.
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
Agonist
Antagonist

Reactivity Notes

Mouse. Not yet tested in other species.

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Storage
Store at 4C in the dark.
Buffer
50mM Sodium Borate
Preservative
0.05% Sodium Azide
Purity
Protein G purified

Notes

Alexa Fluor (R) products are provided under an intellectual property license from Life Technologies Corporation. The purchase of this product conveys to the buyer the non-transferable right to use the purchased product and components of the product only in research conducted by the buyer (whether the buyer is an academic or for-profit entity). The sale of this product is expressly conditioned on the buyer not using the product or its components, or any materials made using the product or its components, in any activity to generate revenue, which may include, but is not limited to use of the product or its components: (i) in manufacturing; (ii) to provide a service, information, or data in return for payment; (iii) for therapeutic, diagnostic or prophylactic purposes; or (iv) for resale, regardless of whether they are resold for use in research. For information on purchasing a license to this product for purposes other than as described above, contact Life Technologies Corporation, 5791 Van Allen Way, Carlsbad, CA 92008 USA or outlicensing@lifetech.com. This conjugate is made on demand. Actual recovery may vary from the stated volume of this product. The volume will be greater than or equal to the unit size stated on the datasheet.

Alternate Names for TLR4 Antibody (MTS510) [Alexa Fluor® 405]

  • ARMD10
  • CD_antigen: CD284
  • CD284 antigen
  • CD284
  • EC 3.2.2.6
  • EC:3.2.2.6
  • homolog of Drosophila toll
  • hToll
  • TLR4
  • TLR-4
  • toll like receptor 4 protein
  • TOLL
  • toll-like receptor 4

Background

TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) is a type-1 transmembrane glycoprotein that is a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) belonging to the TLR family (1-3). TLR4 is expressed in many tissues and is most abundantly expressed in the placenta, spleen, and peripheral blood leukocytes (1). Human TLR4 is synthesized as a 839 amino acid (aa) protein containing a signal sequence (1-23 aa), an extracellular domain (ECD) (24-631 aa), a transmembrane domain (632-652 aa), and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) cytoplasmic domain (652-839 aa) with a theoretical molecular weight of 95 kDa (3, 4). The ECD contains 21 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and has a horseshoe-shaped structure (3, 4). TLR4 requires binding with the co-receptor myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2) largely via hydrophilic interactions for proper ligand sensing and signaling (2-4). In general, the TLR family plays a role in activation of innate immunity and responds to a variety of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) (5). TLR4 is specifically responsive to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is found on the outer-membrane of most ram-negative bacteria (3-5). Activation of TLR4 requires binding of a ligand, such as LPS to MD2, followed by MD2-LPS complex binding to TLR4, resulting in a partial complex (TLR4-MD2/LPS) (3, 5). To become fully active, two partial complexes must dimerize thereby allowing the TIR domains of TLR4 to bind other adapter molecular and initiate signaling, triggering an inflammatory response and cytokine production (3, 5).

TLR4 signaling occurs through two distinct pathways: The MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88)-dependent pathway and the MyD88-independent (TRIF-dependent, TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta) pathway (3, 5-7). The MyD88-dependent pathway occurs mainly at the plasma membrane and involves the binding of MyD88-adaptor-like (MAL) protein followed by a signaling cascade that results in the activation of transcription factors including nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) that promote the secretion of inflammatory molecules and increased phagocytosis (5-7). Conversely, the MyD88-independent pathway occurs after TLR4-MD2 complex internalization in the endosomal compartment. This pathway involves the binding of adapter proteins TRIF and TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM), a signaling activation cascade resulting in IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) translocation into the nucleus, and secretion of interferon-beta (INF-beta) genes and increased phagocytosis (5-7).

Given its expression on immune-related cells and its role in inflammation, TLR4 activation can contribute to various diseases (6-8). For instance, several studies have found that TLR4 activation is associated with neurodegeneration and several central nervous system (CNS) pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease (6, 7). Furthermore, TLR4 mutations have been shown to lead to higher rates of infections and increased susceptibility to sepsis (7-8). One potential therapeutic approach aimed at targeting TLR4 and neuroinflammation is polyphenolic compounds which include flavonoids and phenolic acids and alcohols (8).

Alternative names for TLR4 includes 76B357.1, ARMD10, CD284 antigen, CD284, EC 3.2.2.6, homolog of Drosophila toll, hToll, toll like receptor 4 protein, TOLL, toll-like receptor 4.

References

1. Vaure, C., & Liu, Y. (2014). A comparative review of toll-like receptor 4 expression and functionality in different animal species. Frontiers in immunology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2014.00316

2. Park, B. S., & Lee, J. O. (2013). Recognition of lipopolysaccharide pattern by TLR4 complexes. Experimental & molecular medicine. https://doi.org/10.1038/emm.2013.97

3. Krishnan, J., Anwar, M.A., & Choi, S. (2016) TLR4 (Toll-Like Receptor 4). In: Choi S. (eds) Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6438-9_592-1

4. Botos, I., Segal, D. M., & Davies, D. R. (2011). The structural biology of Toll-like receptors. Structure. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2011.02.004

5. Lu, Y. C., Yeh, W. C., & Ohashi, P. S. (2008). LPS/TLR4 signal transduction pathway. Cytokine. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2008.01.006

6. Leitner, G. R., Wenzel, T. J., Marshall, N., Gates, E. J., & Klegeris, A. (2019). Targeting toll-like receptor 4 to modulate neuroinflammation in central nervous system disorders. Expert opinion on therapeutic targets. https://doi.org/10.1080/14728222.2019.1676416

7. Molteni, M., Gemma, S., & Rossetti, C. (2016). The Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Infectious and Noninfectious Inflammation. Mediators of inflammation. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6978936

8. Rahimifard, M., Maqbool, F., Moeini-Nodeh, S., Niaz, K., Abdollahi, M., Braidy, N., Nabavi, S. M., & Nabavi, S. F. (2017). Targeting the TLR4 signaling pathway by polyphenols: A novel therapeutic strategy for neuroinflammation. Ageing research reviews. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2017.02.004

Limitations

This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt.

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Secondary Antibodies

 

Isotype Controls

Other Available Formats

Alexa Fluor 350 NBP2-24865AF350
Alexa Fluor 405 NBP2-24865AF405
Alexa Fluor 488 NBP2-24865AF488
Alexa Fluor 532 NBP2-24865AF532
Alexa Fluor 594 NBP2-24865AF594
Alexa Fluor 647 NBP2-24865AF647
Alexa Fluor 700 NBP2-24865AF700
Alexa Fluor 750 NBP2-24865AF750
DyLight 350 NBP2-24865UV
DyLight 405 NBP2-24865V
DyLight 488 NBP2-24865G
DyLight 550 NBP2-24865R
DyLight 594 NB100-56560DL594
DyLight 650 NBP2-24865C
DyLight 680 NBP2-24865FR
DyLight 755 NBP2-24865IR
FITC NBP2-24450
Janelia Fluor 549 NBP2-24865JF549
Janelia Fluor 646 NBP2-24865JF646
PE NBP2-24741
PerCP NBP2-24865PCP

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Stimulator of interferon genes (STING), also known as TMEM173, promotes the production of the interferon’s IFN-alpha and IFN-beta.  STING possesses three functional domains: a cytoplasmic C-terminal tail, a central globular domain, and four N-...  Read full blog post.

TRIF/TICAM1 and mitochondrial dynamics in the innate immune response
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Toll like receptors (TLRs) are highly conserved proteins that are first known for their role in pathogen recognition and immune response activation.  In order to elicit the necessary immune response in reaction to a foreign pathogen, TLRs trigger cy...  Read full blog post.

cIAP2 - balancing cell death and cell survival
The inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are important regulators of cell death and inflammation. The cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) contains three Baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domains, a Ubiquitin associated (UBA) domain, and...  Read full blog post.

TLR4 - A Guardian of Innate Immunity
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) belongs to the family of Toll-like receptors (TLR), and plays a main role in pathogen recognition and innate immunity system activation. The TLR family members are highly conserved proteins that all contain a high degree of...  Read full blog post.

IRAK4: The "master IRAK" critical for initiating immune responses
IRAK4, also known as Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4, is a serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays a critical role in initiating innate and adaptive immune responses against foreign pathogens. It activates NF-kappaB in both Toll-like rec...  Read full blog post.

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Bioinformatics

Gene Symbol TLR4