Antibody News

Tiny Antibodies (VHHs) from Llama Neutralize Respiratory Coronaviruses

Tuesday, July 14, 2020 - 14:10
Sharks and llamas produce smaller antibodies called heavy chain-only antibodies (HCAbs) with a single variable domain, VHH.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

VHH Single Domain Antibodies vs Conventional Antibodies

The immune system protects living organisms against harmful substances. B cells ward off infections by producing antibodies to invading pathogens. Conventional antibodies are stable only at a narrow range of temperature and pH. They are also too big to penetrate tissues or to bind with many active sites on proteins. Thankfully, sharks and camelids like llamas...

Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription STAT6: More than a Player in Allergic Inflammation

Monday, June 1, 2020 - 09:37
STAT6 immunocytochemical staining of Daudi human Burkitt’s lymphoma cell line with rabbit anti-human phospho-STAT6 monoclonal antibody.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

What is STAT6?

The cellular pathway comprising tyrosine kinase Janus Kinase (JAK) and the transcription factor STAT connect extracellular signals from various cytokines, hormones and growth factors with the nuclear transcription machinery. Four JAK proteins (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, TYK2) and seven...

Migrasomes: A Novel Vesicle Involved in Intercellular Signaling

Tuesday, May 19, 2020 - 08:54
Immunostaining of NIH-3T3 cells in culture with a mouse monoclonal actin antibody, green fluorescence was visualized at 40X.

By Christina Towers, PhD

What are migrasomes?

A novel vesicular organelle was recently discovered in 2015 by a research group at Tsinghua University headed by Dr. Yu    that is dependent on cell migration and named accordingly as migrasomes1.  They are classified as extracellular...

Understanding Mitophagy Mechanisms: Canonical PINK1/Parkin, LC3-Dependent Piecemeal, and LC3-Independent Mitochondrial Derived Vesicles

Tuesday, April 28, 2020 - 10:00
Expression of the mitochondrial fission protein DRP1 in NH3T3 cells was analyzed by immunocytochemistry with knockout validated rabbit polyclonal anti-DRP1 antibody.

By Christina Towers, PhD

What is Mitophagy?

The selective degradation of mitochondria via double membrane autophagosome vesicles is called mitophagy. Damaged mitochondria can generate harmful amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), accumulate damaged mitochondrial DNA, and induce cell death. Mitophagy functions in coordination with mitochondrial biogenesis and changes in mitochondrial dynamics to maintain...

Understanding COVID-19 Through SARS-CoV-2-Infected Monkey Model

Monday, April 13, 2020 - 08:20
Learn more about how Laverne can help identifying SARS related genes and pathways.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

Novel coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2 has gripped the entire world. Infected individuals keep shedding the virus in respiratory droplets even before showing symptoms because of high viral load in their upper respiratory tract. The virus is also detectable in blood and feces of the infected people. COVID-19 symptoms mainly include fever, fatigue, dry cough and difficulty breathing, which may develop into severe pneumonia. To...

Liver ASK1 activates autophagy to protect against hepatic fat accumulation, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis

Monday, April 6, 2020 - 13:57
MAP3K9 a MAP3K family member is expressed in the cytoplasm of human liver hepatocytes.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

The most common chronic liver disorder worldwide is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This obesity-linked disorder can manifest as hepatic fat accumulation (steatosis) with inflammation called non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH can progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer. Stress conditions and impaired autophagy can contribute to steatosis and fibrosis. Stressors like ...

Blocking SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry: A potential Strategy Against COVID-19 Pandemic

Monday, March 23, 2020 - 11:47
Read the blog and learn more about SARS-CoV-2, an RNA virus from bats transmitted to human through an undetermined host specie and the causal agent of COVID-19.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

Coronaviruses are a family of enveloped RNA viruses. Some family members circulate in human populations, but others like severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) are transmitted from animals to humans. A new strain of coronaviruses called novel coronavirus (nCOV) or SARS-CoV-2 is also transmitted zoonotically. SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global infectious disease called COVID-19. A person catches this notorious illness when he/she comes in contact with respiratory...

New Players in the Mitophagy Game

Tuesday, March 3, 2020 - 11:03
Adenine nucleotide translocase 1 or ADP/ATP translocase (ANT) is expressed in the inner mitochondrial membrane where it exchanges free ATP and ADP from and into the mitochondrial matrix, respectively.

By Christina Towers, PhD

Mitochondrial turn over via the lysosome, otherwise known as mitophagy, involves engulfment of mitochondria into double membrane autophagosomes and subsequent fusion with lysosomes. Much is already known about this process including the canonical and non-canonical mechanisms of action, the critical machinery involved, as well as the...

Insulin signaling in adipocytes: Carbohydrate-signaling transcription factor ChREBP is the link between lipolytic enzyme Hormone-Sensitive Lipase and lipogenic enzyme ELOVL6

Tuesday, February 18, 2020 - 08:43
Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FAB4) is expressed in adipocytes where it activates hormone-sensitive lipase and helps regulate lipolysis.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

Insulin resistance in adipocytes is a major feature of metabolic syndrome   . Disrupted adipose tissue metabolism can lead to accumulation of lipid intermediates in insulin-sensitive tissues like liver and skeletal muscles, thereby diminishing insulin sensitivity. A key enzyme in adipocytes that mobilizes free fatty acids from adipose tissue into the bloodstream is...

The Gut-Brain Axis Effects in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Monday, February 3, 2020 - 11:43
Learn about different signaling pathways associated with autism spectrum disorder, a neurodevelopmental condition that affects how people learn, communicate and interact with others.

By Michalina Hanzel, PhD

The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a bidirectional relationship between the central and enteric nervous systems, which is heavily influenced by the microorganisms living in the gut. Accumulating evidence has pointed to the microbiome, composed mostly of bacteria, but also including archaea, fungi and viruses, as instrumental in maintaining human physiological functions.1 Importantly, the brain is influenced by various bacterial metabolites,...

Inhibiting incretin GIP hormone activity in mouse and monkey models to combat obesity

Monday, January 20, 2020 - 10:52
The release of insulin from pancreas beta-cells is controlled by glucose levels, Vagus nerve input, and GLP-1 from the intestines.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

We live in a world where 39% of adults are overweight. Our meals trigger the secretion of various gut-derived metabolic hormones called incretins. Fats and carbohydrates in our diet stimulate the release of an incretin from the duodenum called glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide or gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). GIP acts on its receptor (GIPR) in adipocytes and pancreas to promote fatty acid uptake and insulin...

Autophagy Research Update: What a difference a year makes!

Thursday, January 2, 2020 - 10:07
Autophagy Handbook provides an overview of molecular players and regulatory mechanisms involved in the process of autophagy.

By Christina Towers, PhD

Over the last two decades the field of autophagy has exploded! Innovative techniques, comprehensive analysis and disease-relevant models have yielded basic and clinical discoveries of consequence. The Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Dr. Yoshinori Ohsumi in 2016, for his ground-breaking work in yeast to identify many of the core autophagy proteins. Since then, the field has only expanded. In just the past year, the field has produced numerous...

Insulin signaling in brain’s subfornical organ is crucial for regulating cardiometabolic profile

Monday, December 16, 2019 - 09:54
Learn about cardiovascular biology resources from Bio-Techne

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

The hypothalamus is an insulin receptor-rich brain region. Insulin receptor signaling in the CNS can regulate blood pressure, for example, by increasing sympathetic outflow to the cardiovascular organs. However, the cardiometabolic impact of deleting insulin receptors only in the hypothalamic region is different from deleting insulin receptors in the whole brain. In other words, insulin signaling outside the hypothalamus is also important for cardioregulatory activities. To explore this extra-hypothalamic insulin signaling, scientists from...

Gut-brain axis: microbiota influence behavior and mental well-being

Tuesday, December 3, 2019 - 09:44
Expression of Neurogranin in the rat brain hippocampus, a calmodulin-binding protein, and a neuron specific protein commonly found in postsynaptic terminals (dendritic spines).

By Jennifer Sokolowski, MD, PhD.

Gut-microbiome interactions

On and in our bodies, microbes outnumber our cells by about ten-to-one. Studies have revealed that the microbiome influences neurogenesis, cognition, and stress responses, leading to increased interest in identifying factors that affect the gut microbiota, and a drive to understand pathways involved in the gut-brain axis.1

The composition of microbiota in the gut affects the...

Astrocytes: Diversity in type and function

Monday, November 18, 2019 - 09:30
In the CNS astrocytes have different functions including modulation of synaptic activity and synaptogenesis, communication with other astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia, as well as modulation of the blood brain barrier.

By Michalina Hanzel, PhD

Astrocytes are a type of macroglia found in the central nervous system that regulate a vast array of essential brain functions, ranging from synaptogenesis, ion homeostasis and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier, to buffering of neurotransmitters and secretion of neuroactive agents. Considering the plethora of roles that astrocytes...

Muscle-specific UBE2O ablation requires activated AMPKα2 to protect against metabolic syndrome

Friday, November 8, 2019 - 10:45
Clearance of elevated glucose and fatty acids by skeletal muscle is affected by the development of insulin resistance.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

Generating energy (ATP) from nutrients is a recipe for life. One of the sensors of cellular energy levels is the serine/threonine kinase AMPK. This enzyme facilitates lipid oxidation and glucose uptake when energy levels fall, thereby promoting ATP production. AMPK comprises a catalytic alpha subunit with two regulatory subunits,...

Autophagy and Metastasis

Monday, November 4, 2019 - 10:08
EpCAM/TROP1 is localized by immunohistochemical analysis of human breast carcinoma tissue to the cell membrane and intercellular spaces.

By Christina Towers, PhD

The majority of cancer patients die from metastatic disease at secondary sites. The threshold to undergo metastasis is high. Only a minority of cancer cells acquire invasive phenotypes like motility and the ability to survive under detached conditions. Consistently, only few cancer cells acquire stem cell like properties, including a more mesenchymal morphology...

Metabolic Syndrome: Symptoms and associated disease states

Tuesday, October 29, 2019 - 09:23
The term, metabolism, refers to the totality of chemical reactions that occur in a biological system for the conversion of ingested nutrients into their basic constituents (i.e. proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and carbohydrates).

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

What is metabolic syndrome?

It was 1988 when, after decades of research, Dr. GM Reaven    of the Stanford University, CA, explained the relationship between four diseases: insulin resistance, hypertension, diabetes and obesity....

Increased wild type FUS levels in ALS patients lead to a toxic microenvironment and motor neuron neurodegeneration

Tuesday, October 22, 2019 - 10:03
Dual expression of ALDH1L1-red and Vimentin-green identifies astrocytes which may be identified by their golden or red fluorescence. ALDH1L1 is expressed in the cell body and processes of astrocytes.

By Michalina Hanzel, PhD

FUS mutations in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Fused in sarcoma (FUS) is a ribonucleoprotein that continuously shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm to regulate pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA stability and mRNA transport. Mutations in FUS are found in 4% familial and 1% sporadic cases of amyotrophic lateral...

Detecting HIF alpha and beyond: Best controls for hypoxia Western blot analysis

Monday, October 14, 2019 - 09:17
Analysis of HIF-1 alpha expression in whole cell lysates from HeLa cells in culture treated or untreated with cobalt chloride and independent antibody validation where two different antibodies to HIF-1 alpha were used for immunoprecipitation and detection.

By Rosa Moreno, PhD.

Detecting HIF alpha and beyond: Best controls for hypoxia Western blot analysis

Physiological low levels of oxygen induce normal hypoxic events across biological systems. This hypoxic state activates hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) to regulate transcription by binding to the hypoxia response element (HRE) region of...

Neurovascular signaling for repair enhances brain metastasis

Tuesday, October 8, 2019 - 09:02
High expression of GFAP (green) identifies astrocytes in rat cerebellum

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

Stroke    is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Cellular players – neurons, astrocytes, endothelial and stromal cells – involved in post-stroke repair through angiogenesis...

Glypican 3 as a biomarker for gastro-esophageal adenocarcinoma

Tuesday, October 1, 2019 - 10:17
Expression of CD81 was detected by immunofluorescence with a mouse monoclonal antibody followed by secondary antibody labeled with DyLight488 and Phalloidin 568 staining for actin visualization

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

Gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma originates from the glandular epithelium of the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction and stomach. The incidence of gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma is declining, but it is still one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. A key reason behind high mortality is that by the time gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma is diagnosed, the cancer has often already metastasized. The search for novel biomarkers underlying gastroesophageal...

Isolating immune cells from peripheral blood: How and when to use density gradient centrifugation

Tuesday, September 24, 2019 - 09:05
Adaptive immunity is mediated by lymphocytes (e.g., T cells and B cells) while innate immunity responses are mediated by several cellular mediators (e.g., Neutrophils, Natural Killer Cells and Eosinophils)

By Victoria Osinski

Lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes, oh my!

There are many different immune cells (leukocytes) that are found in circulation along with other cellular components such as platelets and red blood cells. Red blood cells (RBCs) are the most abundant, followed by neutrophils and lymphocytes. The immune cells can be categorized as either mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes...

Suppressing breast cancer metastasis: The role of hypoxia-induced RhoB expression and activation

Tuesday, September 17, 2019 - 08:16
Expression of RhoA, B and C detected in the cytoplasm of A431 cells, a model of human epidermoid carcinoma, compared to negative control analyzed in the absence of RhoA Antibody (1A11-4G10) [NBP2-22528]

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

The Ras homologous

Tips to Optimize your Western blot for phosphorylated protein detection

Tuesday, September 10, 2019 - 10:48
Western blotting allows identifying and quantifying proteins from cell lysates for determination of protein expression, sub-cellular localization, post-translational modifications, protein processing, and protein-protein interactions.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

Protein phosphorylation refers to a reversible post-translational modification in which a protein kinase adds a phosphate group to an amino acid residue of a target protein. Protein phosphorylation, especially tyrosine phosphorylation, is one of the early events in signal transduction in all eukaryotic cells.

Once a cell is lysed, proteases and phosphatases are released that can degrade or...


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