Antibody News

Dual ISH-IHC: Better Together

Friday, July 15, 2022 - 13:08
Bio-Techne RNAscope ISH Banner.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD


What is Dual ISH-IHC?

On their own, both

Good Things Come in Small Packages: The Power of LlaMABody-Camelid Antibodies

Friday, June 3, 2022 - 15:21
Banner image of llamas for LLaMABody product line.

By Jennifer Jones, M.S.

When you think of antibody producing animals in the lab you probably think of rabbits, mice, goats, and rats. But what about llamas? Llamas probably aren’t the first animal, or even the fifth animal, that comes to mind when you think of antibody generation, but they’ve recently garnered a lot of attention for their potential to treat COVID-19 through neutralization of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.1 Additionally, they’ve shown potential in combatting other...

Epigenetics of Depression: How Can Psychological Stress Alter Your DNA?

Wednesday, May 18, 2022 - 08:59
Banner schematic showing epigenetic modification targeting DNA.

By Emily Cartwright, PhD

How Can Psychological Stress Alter Your DNA?

Traumatic events, work demands, relationship conflicts, and health problems are all examples of psychological stressors that can result in physiological changes including increased cortisol and adrenaline levels. This change in gene expression manifests in physical symptoms such as increased heart rate, blood pressure, headaches, fatigue, muscle pain, and insomnia. In addition to changing gene expression in the short term, psychological stress can impart lasting changes to your DNA by modifying the epigenome.


Hypoxia-Dependent CAR Stabilizing Construct in T cells Improves Solid Tumor Targeting and Efficacy

Monday, April 11, 2022 - 08:54
Banner image showing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell.

By Victoria Osinski, PhD

Despite advances in the development of cancer immunotherapies, those specifically targeting tumors still remains limited. Currently, there is great interest in utilizing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies: a strategy that utilizes patients’ T cells and genetically engineers them to produce a T cell receptor to mount an attack against cancer cells. While CAR T cells can effectively kill cancer cells in tumors, they often come with off-tumor effects because these CARs’ target antigens are found endogenously in the body....

Tired T cells: Hypoxia Drives T cell Exhaustion in the Tumor Microenvironment

Monday, March 14, 2022 - 09:22
Banner image showing cancer cells in hypoxic conditions.

By Hunter Martinez

The paradigm shifting view of the immune system being leveraged to target cancer has led to numerous therapeutic breakthroughs. One major cell group responsible for this revelation is a T cell. T cells functioning in fighting cancer can become tired or “exhausted”.  T cell exhaustion is a state of cellular dysfunction resulting from repeated stimulation and chronic exposure to...

Synthetic Biotic Medicine as Immunotherapy Against Cancer: Evidence From Arginine-Producing Engineered Bacteria

Tuesday, February 1, 2022 - 09:12
3D banner image showing example of pathogenic bacteria.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

What do nuts, dairy and red meat have in common? In addition to the fact that they are all edible, one of the answers is L-arginine. This amino acid improves T cell’s response against tumor cells, which typically have low concentration of L-arginine. Increasing L-arginine intra-tumorally, in turn, increases the effect of immunotherapy drugs called immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). To understand ICIs, consider two examples of...

Immune Cell Metabolic Flux Influences Type I Diabetes

Friday, December 17, 2021 - 09:01
Banner image showing mitochondrion and metabolic pathways and targets, from Tocris.

By Hunter Martinez

What is Immunometabolism?

It is well established that abnormal metabolic environments can be a risk factor for disease development. One characteristic example is the role of dyslipidemia (high levels of lipids) in development of

Harnessing Natural Killer Cell Activity for Anti-Tumor Immunotherapy

Wednesday, November 24, 2021 - 09:34
Banner image showing the workflow for Natural Killer (NK) cells.

By Victoria Osinski, PhD

What’s “Natural” About Natural Killer (NK) Cells?

For immunologists, the term cytotoxicity often conjures up images of an army of antigen specific CD8+ T cells deploying to find and kill their target cells. However, natural killer (NK) cells are a distinct subset of cytotoxic immune lymphoid cells with both innate and adaptive immune functions. Innate functions are first-...

Understanding ‘Y’ in Breast Cancer: Crucial Role of DNA/RNA-binding Protein YB-1 in the Development, Pre-Invasive, and Metastatic Phases

Thursday, October 21, 2021 - 10:08
Akt expression in immersion fixed MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line using Mouse Anti-Akt Monoclonal Antibody and stained with NorthernLights 557-conjugated IgG Secondary Antibody.

Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

In the United States, 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in her lifetime.1 Despite the prevalence, cancer genesis is a mystery. The heterogeneity of cancers makes it difficult to study the precise mechanism of breast cancer development in vivo. Yet, research has shown that...

Successful Transplantation of Friedreich Ataxia Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC)-Derived Sensory Neurons in Dorsal Root Ganglia of Adult Rodents

Thursday, October 7, 2021 - 15:31
3D rendering of neuronal induced pluripotent stem cells as a banner image.

Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are a collection of cell bodies of sensory nerves carrying sensory information – including nociception, mechanoreception and proprioception – from peripheral nervous system (PNS) to the central nervous system (CNS). Degeneration of DRG, as observed in the autosomal recessive disease Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), manifests physiologically as impaired speech, difficulty walking, and loss of sensation in arms and legs. To mitigate FRDA, cell replacement therapy (CRT), such as...

Taking Biomarker Discovery From 2D to 3D: Increased Biological Activity of EVs Isolated From 3D Prostate Cancer Cultures

Friday, September 24, 2021 - 10:03
3D rendering of extracellular vesicles released from cells as a banner image.

Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

Tissues within the human body are made of a three-dimensional (3D) arrangement of cells working together to perform vital functions. The commonly used 2D monolayer cultures have limited expandability and cell-cell communication, making them less relevant to human physiology. By contrast, in 3D cultures, such as spheroids or organoids, cells can easily permeate through the scaffold allowing the cells to stretch out and have...

Using CometChip to Characterize Extracellular Regulators of DNA Repair: Does CD73 Levels in Cancer Cells Affect DNA Repair by Regulating Levels of Intracellular NAD+?

Thursday, August 26, 2021 - 11:50
3D rendering of CometChip as a banner image.

By Natalia Gurule, PhD


Historically, DNA repair pathways have been viewed from a tumor cell centric vantage point. Currently, the tumor microenvironment (TME) is recognized as having the potential to be a source of components that can participate in how a cancer cell responds to DNA damage. Within the TME, there are metabolites that can promote tumor cell growth and modulate immune cell...

Staufen1 Overabundance and the Consequent mTOR Hyperactivity in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s Diseases

Thursday, August 12, 2021 - 15:24
3D rendering of neurons as a banner image.

Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

Neurodegenerative disorders involve loss of function and, ultimately, death of neurons. Selective neuronal vulnerability has been observed in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. For example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) attack motor neurons, while Alzheimer’s disease (AD),...

Early T cell response is associated with mild COVID-19 and rapid SARS-CoV-2 clearance

Thursday, July 29, 2021 - 10:10
3D rendering of T cells as a banner image.

Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

SARS-CoV-2 induces both humoral and cellular immunity. A vaccine or natural infection invokes SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral components (antibodies from activated B cells) and cellular response (CD4+, CD8+ T cells) that can protect against subsequent infections. Following SARS-CoV-2 infection, the levels of...

New mass spectrometry technique presents new questions about MHC II expression regulation

Thursday, July 1, 2021 - 13:15
Immunocytochemical analysis of formalin fixed and permeabilized Daudi cells incubated with Mouse Anti-HLA DMA Monoclonal Antibody and detected with Anti-Mouse DyLight 488 (green), also showing Actin detected with Phalloidin 568 (red), and nuclei stained with DAPI (blue).

By Victoria Osinski, PhD

An exciting new study by Casasola-LaMacchia et al. was published earlier this year presenting a novel mass spectrometry method for detecting different MHC class...

Pyroptosis: Mechanisms mediating cell death and pro-inflammatory cytokine release

Friday, June 18, 2021 - 15:49
Immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed tissue of adenocarcinoma of the rectum using Caspase-1 antibody, peroxidase conjugate, and DAB chromogen.

By Victoria Osinski

Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of programmed cell death characterized by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18.1,10 It is a process distinct from apoptosis and necrosis (Table 1) and has been observed in the setting of multiple diseases including, but...

COVID-19 and metabolic dysregulation: SARS-CoV-2 injures human exocrine and endocrine pancreas

Thursday, June 3, 2021 - 17:55
Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded rat pancreas tissue with insulin antibody (red) and NKX6.1 antibody (green).

Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

Humans rely on the pancreas for digesting food and generating energy from it. SARS-CoV-2-mediated damage to the exocrine pancreas is evident from the pancreatitis, pancreatic enlargement, and abnormal levels of digestive enzymes in severe COVID-19. Likewise, increased propensity for hyperglycemia,...

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders involve extracellular Nef-induced modification of lipid rafts and redistribution of Alzheimer’s disease-related proteins

Friday, May 14, 2021 - 11:17
Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded ovarian cancer tissue sample with lipid-related protein Apolipoprotein E/ApoE.

Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

Cholesterol is an essential part of animal cell membranes. Cholesterol-rich lipid rafts maintain the fluidity and protein trafficking of plasma membranes. Cellular ABCA1 protein moves cholesterol and certain fats outside of the cell. Dysregulated lipid rafts and cholesterol metabolism...

SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Targets: The Present and Future of COVID-19

Thursday, April 29, 2021 - 17:48
Schematic of SARS-CoV-2 virus particle showing structural and non-structural proteins

Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

Current approved and candidate vaccines

SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein is the main target of COVID-19 vaccines. Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines are RNA-based vaccines while...

Approved COVID-19 Vaccines: Delivery of Nucleic Acid Cargo and Immune Response

Thursday, April 15, 2021 - 10:37
Banner image showing COVID-19 viruses with spike proteins.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

Vaccination generates protective adaptive immune memory without the need for an actual viral infection. COVID-19 vaccines help recognize and fight off SARS-CoV-2 infection. In December 2020, US-FDA approved mRNA vaccines made by Pfizer-BioNTech and...

Transcriptional co-activators Yap1 and Taz control growth and development

Wednesday, March 31, 2021 - 09:42
Schematic of Hippo signaling pathway highlighting Yap and Taz proteins.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

Introduction – Hippo kinase and its effectors Yap1 and Taz

Hippo signaling pathway may be regarded as a master regulator of organ growth. Hippo pathway is a sensor for cellular and tissue integrity that does not seem to have dedicated extracellular ligands or receptors. The downstream effectors of Hippo serine/threonine kinase signaling are two structurally and functionally similar proteins, Yap1 and Taz. These two proteins are transcriptional co-activators, which means that they themselves are unable to bind to the...

Untangling the contribution of the enteric nervous system to intestinal and extraintestinal disease

Thursday, March 11, 2021 - 08:42
Banner schematic showing a portion of gut and neuronal connections.

By Emily Cartwright, PhD

What is the ENS?

When it's late in the afternoon and you smell a delicious bag of popcorn in the microwave, your mouth begins to water and your stomach starts to grumble. These behaviors are a result of communication between your enteric nervous system (ENS) and brain. The ENS is an arm of the peripheral nervous system and is critically important for function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, controlling everything from salivation to excretion. Dysfunction of the ENS leads to...

Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) expression and function in endothelial cells

Thursday, February 25, 2021 - 16:02
Banner image cartoon depicting a portion of the TLR signaling pathway.

By Victoria Osinski

What are Pattern recognition receptors?

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize and respond to Pattern- and Damage-associated molecular patterns (PAMP and DAMPs) in a number of different cell types. The PRR family can be broken down into sub-families of receptors (Table 1). While first identified in the context of infection, these receptors and signaling pathways are involved in many disease contexts including ischemia, cancer, atherosclerosis, and autoimmunity.2,16,18 Broadly, PRR signaling can regulate cell death...

COVID-19 and the Cardiovascular System: Observed complications and potential mechanisms

Friday, February 12, 2021 - 13:55
Banner image showing COVID-19 virus with spike protein.

By Victoria Osinski

The outbreak of COVID-19 resulting from the transmission of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in many cases of illness typically manifesting in minor to severe respiratory symptoms. However, additional cardiovascular complications have been observed in a subset of patients as well, prompting further inquiry into the mechanisms of infection and response to SARS-CoV-2. While advancements have been made into answering these questions, it is still...

Autophagy and RAS signaling: Clinical implications

Monday, February 1, 2021 - 12:21
Immunocytochemical staining of fixed and permeabilized HeLa cells treated with chloroquine, incubated with LC3B (green) and tubulin (red) antibodies, and counterstained with DAPI to visualized DNA.

By Christina Towers, PhD

The cellular recycling process known as autophagy is currently being targeted in over 60 clinical trials focused on treating different types of cancer1. To date, the only autophagy-targeted agents used in patients are late stage autophagy inhibitors that target the lysosome, including chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Over the...


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