Antibody News

SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Targets: The Present and Future of COVID-19

Thursday, April 29, 2021 - 17:48
Schematic of SARS-CoV-2 virus particle showing structural and non-structural proteins

Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

Current approved and candidate vaccines

SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein is the main target of COVID-19 vaccines. Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines are RNA-based vaccines while...

Approved COVID-19 Vaccines: Delivery of Nucleic Acid Cargo and Immune Response

Thursday, April 15, 2021 - 10:37
Banner image showing COVID-19 viruses with spike proteins.


By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

Vaccination generates protective adaptive immune memory without the need for an actual viral infection. COVID-19 vaccines help recognize and fight off SARS-CoV-2 infection. In December 2020, US-FDA approved mRNA vaccines made by Pfizer-BioNTech and...

Transcriptional co-activators Yap1 and Taz control growth and development

Wednesday, March 31, 2021 - 09:42
Schematic of Hippo signaling pathway highlighting Yap and Taz proteins.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

Introduction – Hippo kinase and its effectors Yap1 and Taz

Hippo signaling pathway may be regarded as a master regulator of organ growth. Hippo pathway is a sensor for cellular and tissue integrity that does not seem to have dedicated extracellular ligands or receptors. The downstream effectors of Hippo serine/threonine kinase signaling are two structurally and functionally similar proteins, Yap1 and Taz. These two proteins are transcriptional co-activators, which means that they themselves are unable to bind to the...

Untangling the contribution of the enteric nervous system to intestinal and extraintestinal disease

Thursday, March 11, 2021 - 08:42
Banner schematic showing a portion of gut and neuronal connections.

By Emily Cartwright, PhD

What is the ENS?

When it's late in the afternoon and you smell a delicious bag of popcorn in the microwave, your mouth begins to water and your stomach starts to grumble. These behaviors are a result of communication between your enteric nervous system (ENS) and brain. The ENS is an arm of the peripheral nervous system and is critically important for function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, controlling everything from salivation to excretion. Dysfunction of the ENS leads to...

Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) expression and function in endothelial cells

Thursday, February 25, 2021 - 16:02
Banner image cartoon depicting a portion of the TLR signaling pathway.

By Victoria Osinski

What are Pattern recognition receptors?

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize and respond to Pattern- and Damage-associated molecular patterns (PAMP and DAMPs) in a number of different cell types. The PRR family can be broken down into sub-families of receptors (Table 1). While first identified in the context of infection, these receptors and signaling pathways are involved in many disease contexts including ischemia, cancer, atherosclerosis, and autoimmunity.2,16,18 Broadly, PRR signaling can regulate cell death...

COVID-19 and the Cardiovascular System: Observed complications and potential mechanisms

Friday, February 12, 2021 - 13:55
Banner image showing COVID-19 virus with spike protein.

By Victoria Osinski

The outbreak of COVID-19 resulting from the transmission of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in many cases of illness typically manifesting in minor to severe respiratory symptoms. However, additional cardiovascular complications have been observed in a subset of patients as well, prompting further inquiry into the mechanisms of infection and response to SARS-CoV-2. While advancements have been made into answering these questions, it is still...

Autophagy and RAS signaling: Clinical implications

Monday, February 1, 2021 - 12:21
Immunocytochemical staining of fixed and permeabilized HeLa cells treated with chloroquine, incubated with LC3B (green) and tubulin (red) antibodies, and counterstained with DAPI to visualized DNA.

By Christina Towers, PhD

The cellular recycling process known as autophagy is currently being targeted in over 60 clinical trials focused on treating different types of cancer1. To date, the only autophagy-targeted agents used in patients are late stage autophagy inhibitors that target the lysosome, including chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Over the...

COVID-19-Related Neurological Problems: Uncovering the Mechanisms

Monday, January 11, 2021 - 10:41
Novus Biologicals 3D image for coronavirus banner

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

There is good news and bad news related to COVID-19, a disease caused by SARS-COV-2 infection. Good news first: the vast majority of otherwise healthy individuals remain asymptomatic. The bad news though is that even the asymptomatic population is at risk for COVID-19-related brain damage called NeuroCOVID. The neurological manifestations related to COVID-19 may be less severe and less frequent in milder cases as compared to the hospitalized patients. This article will outline the mechanism behind NeuroCOVID and COVID-19-related neuropsychological...

Breast cancer stem cells survive chemotherapy through S100A10-ANXA2-SPT6 interaction that epigenetically promotes OCT4-mediated stemness

Wednesday, January 6, 2021 - 15:38
Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma with rabbit polyclonal Oct4 antibody.


By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women that causes the greatest number of cancer-related deaths worldwide. After radiotherapy or cytotoxic chemotherapy like paclitaxel, the surviving breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) lead to tumor recurrence and metastasis. Resistant BCSCs undergo self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The master regulators for such...

Methamphetamine with HIV induces mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal injury through oxidative stress

Thursday, December 31, 2020 - 08:53
Immunocytochemical staining of formalin-fixed, permeabilized PC12 cells with rabbit polyclonal DRP1 antibody and detected with Dylight 488 (green) and the nuclei counterstained with DAPI (blue).

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

December 1 is the World AIDS Day. Despite the combination antiretroviral therapy, 10-25% of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-positive individuals report neurocognitive impairments, especially those taking addictive stimulants like methamphetamine. HIV disrupts mitophagy and...

Deficiency of GluT1 leads to neurological problems while excess is involved in cancers

Tuesday, November 3, 2020 - 13:20
Immunohistochemical staining of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue of human placenta with rabbit polyclonal Glut1 antibody and staining developed using HRP-DAB with hematoxylin counterstaining.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

What Are GluTs?

Mammalian cell metabolism is incomplete without glucose   . Glucose is a monosaccharide that is transported to the cells through facilitative diffusion, a process governed by membrane proteins like glucose transporters (GluTs).1 GluTs belong to a large family of...

Rest in Peace: Is the Receptor Interacting Protein (RIP) Kinase-3 (RIPK3) a Protector or Offender?

Thursday, September 3, 2020 - 09:22
RIPK3/RIP3 immunocytochemical staining of fixed HeLa cells with rabbit polyclonal RIPK3/RIP3 antibody (green) and co-stained with an Alpha Tubulin antibody (red).

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

Receptor interacting protein kinases (RIPKs) in necroptosis

Death is perhaps inevitable. Cell death can be programed and immunologically silent (apoptosis), unprogrammed and inflammatory (necrosis), or both programmed and inflammatory (necroptosis). Ligands like TNF, FasL and...

Bio-Techne’s CiteAb 2020 Researchers’ Choice Award

Tuesday, August 4, 2020 - 09:58
Bio-Techne receives CiteAb 2020 Researchers’ Choice Award.

By Kate Wilmore

This year Bio-Techne was honored to receive the CiteAb Researchers' Choice Award   . This award recognizes and celebrates the very best suppliers and individuals in the research reagent sector worldwide. The Researchers' Choice category is based on both the quantity and quality of the nominations submitted by investigators, which reflects their opinion on the excellence of products and services offered by life sciences companies.

...

COVID-19 Pathology and Immune Response to SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Highlights from Studies at NIH, CDC, and Harvard

Monday, August 3, 2020 - 08:57
SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein is found in the core of the viral particle, interacts with viral RNA and functions in genome packing.

By Rosa Moreno, PhD.

As the race for developing a vaccine to tackle the ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic evolves, scientists at NIH, CDC and Harvard Medical School continue to make strides in understanding the often-unpredictable pathology and immune response associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections. Several recent studies shed light on the organ and tissue distribution of the virus following infection, the predominant tissue damage induced by the virus, and the immune responses triggered by infection. These findings, the product of studies with animal models and...

Tiny Antibodies (VHHs) from Llama Neutralize Respiratory Coronaviruses

Tuesday, July 14, 2020 - 14:10
Sharks and llamas produce smaller antibodies called heavy chain-only antibodies (HCAbs) with a single variable domain, VHH.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

VHH Single Domain Antibodies vs Conventional Antibodies

The immune system protects living organisms against harmful substances. B cells ward off infections by producing antibodies to invading pathogens. Conventional antibodies are stable only at a narrow range of temperature and pH. They are also too big to penetrate tissues or to bind with many active sites on proteins. Thankfully, sharks and camelids like llamas...

Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription STAT6: More than a Player in Allergic Inflammation

Monday, June 1, 2020 - 09:37
STAT6 immunocytochemical staining of Daudi human Burkitt’s lymphoma cell line with rabbit anti-human phospho-STAT6 monoclonal antibody.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

What is STAT6?

The cellular pathway comprising tyrosine kinase Janus Kinase (JAK) and the transcription factor STAT connect extracellular signals from various cytokines, hormones and growth factors with the nuclear transcription machinery. Four JAK proteins (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, TYK2) and seven...

Migrasomes: A Novel Vesicle Involved in Intercellular Signaling

Tuesday, May 19, 2020 - 08:54
Immunostaining of NIH-3T3 cells in culture with a mouse monoclonal actin antibody, green fluorescence was visualized at 40X.

By Christina Towers, PhD

What are migrasomes?

A novel vesicular organelle was recently discovered in 2015 by a research group at Tsinghua University headed by Dr. Yu    that is dependent on cell migration and named accordingly as migrasomes1.  They are classified as extracellular...

Understanding Mitophagy Mechanisms: Canonical PINK1/Parkin, LC3-Dependent Piecemeal, and LC3-Independent Mitochondrial Derived Vesicles

Tuesday, April 28, 2020 - 10:00
Expression of the mitochondrial fission protein DRP1 in NH3T3 cells was analyzed by immunocytochemistry with knockout validated rabbit polyclonal anti-DRP1 antibody.

By Christina Towers, PhD

What is Mitophagy?

The selective degradation of mitochondria via double membrane autophagosome vesicles is called mitophagy. Damaged mitochondria can generate harmful amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), accumulate damaged mitochondrial DNA, and induce cell death. Mitophagy functions in coordination with mitochondrial biogenesis and changes in mitochondrial dynamics to maintain...

Understanding COVID-19 Through SARS-CoV-2-Infected Monkey Model

Monday, April 13, 2020 - 08:20
Learn more about how Laverne can help identifying SARS related genes and pathways.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

Novel coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2 has gripped the entire world. Infected individuals keep shedding the virus in respiratory droplets even before showing symptoms because of high viral load in their upper respiratory tract. The virus is also detectable in blood and feces of the infected people. COVID-19 symptoms mainly include fever, fatigue, dry cough and difficulty breathing, which may develop into severe pneumonia. To...

Liver ASK1 activates autophagy to protect against hepatic fat accumulation, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis

Monday, April 6, 2020 - 13:57
MAP3K9 a MAP3K family member is expressed in the cytoplasm of human liver hepatocytes.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

The most common chronic liver disorder worldwide is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This obesity-linked disorder can manifest as hepatic fat accumulation (steatosis) with inflammation called non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH can progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer. Stress conditions and impaired autophagy can contribute to steatosis and fibrosis. Stressors like ...

Blocking SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry: A potential Strategy Against COVID-19 Pandemic

Monday, March 23, 2020 - 11:47
Read the blog and learn more about SARS-CoV-2, an RNA virus from bats transmitted to human through an undetermined host specie and the causal agent of COVID-19.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

Coronaviruses are a family of enveloped RNA viruses. Some family members circulate in human populations, but others like severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) are transmitted from animals to humans. A new strain of coronaviruses called novel coronavirus (nCOV) or SARS-CoV-2 is also transmitted zoonotically. SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global infectious disease called COVID-19. A person catches this notorious illness when he/she comes in contact with respiratory...

New Players in the Mitophagy Game

Tuesday, March 3, 2020 - 11:03
Adenine nucleotide translocase 1 or ADP/ATP translocase (ANT) is expressed in the inner mitochondrial membrane where it exchanges free ATP and ADP from and into the mitochondrial matrix, respectively.

By Christina Towers, PhD

Mitochondrial turn over via the lysosome, otherwise known as mitophagy, involves engulfment of mitochondria into double membrane autophagosomes and subsequent fusion with lysosomes. Much is already known about this process including the canonical and non-canonical mechanisms of action, the critical machinery involved, as well as the...

Insulin signaling in adipocytes: Carbohydrate-signaling transcription factor ChREBP is the link between lipolytic enzyme Hormone-Sensitive Lipase and lipogenic enzyme ELOVL6

Tuesday, February 18, 2020 - 08:43
Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FAB4) is expressed in adipocytes where it activates hormone-sensitive lipase and helps regulate lipolysis.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

Insulin resistance in adipocytes is a major feature of metabolic syndrome   . Disrupted adipose tissue metabolism can lead to accumulation of lipid intermediates in insulin-sensitive tissues like liver and skeletal muscles, thereby diminishing insulin sensitivity. A key enzyme in adipocytes that mobilizes free fatty acids from adipose tissue into the bloodstream is...

The Gut-Brain Axis Effects in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Monday, February 3, 2020 - 11:43
Learn about different signaling pathways associated with autism spectrum disorder, a neurodevelopmental condition that affects how people learn, communicate and interact with others.

By Michalina Hanzel, PhD

The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a bidirectional relationship between the central and enteric nervous systems, which is heavily influenced by the microorganisms living in the gut. Accumulating evidence has pointed to the microbiome, composed mostly of bacteria, but also including archaea, fungi and viruses, as instrumental in maintaining human physiological functions.1 Importantly, the brain is influenced by various bacterial metabolites,...

Inhibiting incretin GIP hormone activity in mouse and monkey models to combat obesity

Monday, January 20, 2020 - 10:52
The release of insulin from pancreas beta-cells is controlled by glucose levels, Vagus nerve input, and GLP-1 from the intestines.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD.

We live in a world where 39% of adults are overweight. Our meals trigger the secretion of various gut-derived metabolic hormones called incretins. Fats and carbohydrates in our diet stimulate the release of an incretin from the duodenum called glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide or gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). GIP acts on its receptor (GIPR) in adipocytes and pancreas to promote fatty acid uptake and insulin...

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