Antibody News

Conventional Flow Cytometry vs. Spectral Flow Cytometry

Monday, November 14, 2022 - 11:17
Flow cytometry graphic banner

By Hunter Martinez

 

The flow cytometer is a critical piece of equipment in any immunologist’s arsenal. Flow cytometry allows for the acquisition of 4-6x105 cells per minute, each resolved at the single cell level. Scientists can interrogate protein, gene expression, as well as metabolic state of a cell using a flow cytometer.

 

The Basics of Cytometry

A cytometer accomplishes this feat using the principle of fluorescence. Fluorescence occurs when light from a laser is absorbed by a fluorophore, and then emitted as longer wavelength light or lower...

Is Monkeypox Still A Threat?

Monday, October 24, 2022 - 08:15
Monkeypox Graphic Banner.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

 

Monkeypox is not deadly like its cousin, smallpox, nor is it as contagious as COVID-19. Yet, it continues to scare the world. In May 2022, a multinational outbreak of a contagious pox (rupture of skin and mucous membrane) was in the news and by July 23, 2022, the World Health Organization (WHO) had declared monkeypox a “public health emergency of international concern”. People’s memory of fatal but now eradicated...

NPC1: A Potential Target For Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Wednesday, October 5, 2022 - 09:15
Immunocytochemical analysis of NPC1 in HeLa cells.

By Natalia Gurule, PhD

 

Breast Cancer is a Heterogeneous Disease

Breast cancer is the most frequently identified malignancy in women, accounting for 30% of diagnosed cases of cancer in women in the US annually.1 Although it is so prevalent, 70-80% of patients with early stage, non-metastatic disease experience cures. By contrast, the 5-year survival rate for metastatic breast cancer is 29%.2 Molecularly, breast cancer can be separated into 5 subtypes: Luminal A, Luminal B, Luminal B-like, HER2+, and Triple-...

IRE1α Regulates Dendritic Cell Function in Response to Viral Infection

Friday, September 9, 2022 - 11:16
Immunohistochemical analysis of IRE1 alpha in human epididymis.

By Natalia Gurule, PhD

 

What is IRE1 alpha?

Inositol- requiring enzyme type 1 alpha (IRE1α) is a serine/threonine kinase that is one of the three transducers within the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway which becomes activated upon accumulation of misfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).1 IRE1α contains two...

The NLRP3 Inflammasome: Macrophage Activator & Pathology Driver

Monday, August 22, 2022 - 14:03
R&D Systems Inflammasome activation pathway banner.

By Victoria Osinski, PhD

What is the NLRP3 Inflammasome?

With its critical role in innate immunity, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a sensor complex within cells that forms in response to endogenous danger signals, microbial motifs, and other environmental cues. The complex is made up of a sensor (NLRP3), an adaptor called the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain...

Dual ISH-IHC: Better Together

Friday, July 15, 2022 - 13:08
Bio-Techne RNAscope ISH Banner.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

 

What is Dual ISH-IHC?

On their own, both

Good Things Come in Small Packages: The Power of LlaMABody-Camelid Antibodies

Friday, June 3, 2022 - 15:21
Banner image of llamas for LLaMABody product line.

By Jennifer Jones, M.S.

When you think of antibody producing animals in the lab you probably think of rabbits, mice, goats, and rats. But what about llamas? Llamas probably aren’t the first animal, or even the fifth animal, that comes to mind when you think of antibody generation, but they’ve recently garnered a lot of attention for their potential to treat COVID-19 through neutralization of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.1 Additionally, they’ve shown potential in combatting other...

Epigenetics of Depression: How Can Psychological Stress Alter Your DNA?

Wednesday, May 18, 2022 - 08:59
Banner schematic showing epigenetic modification targeting DNA.

By Emily Cartwright, PhD

How Can Psychological Stress Alter Your DNA?

Traumatic events, work demands, relationship conflicts, and health problems are all examples of psychological stressors that can result in physiological changes including increased cortisol and adrenaline levels. This change in gene expression manifests in physical symptoms such as increased heart rate, blood pressure, headaches, fatigue, muscle pain, and insomnia. In addition to changing gene expression in the short term, psychological stress can impart lasting changes to your DNA by modifying the epigenome.

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Hypoxia-Dependent CAR Stabilizing Construct in T cells Improves Solid Tumor Targeting and Efficacy

Monday, April 11, 2022 - 08:54
Banner image showing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell.

By Victoria Osinski, PhD

Despite advances in the development of cancer immunotherapies, those specifically targeting tumors still remains limited. Currently, there is great interest in utilizing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies: a strategy that utilizes patients’ T cells and genetically engineers them to produce a T cell receptor to mount an attack against cancer cells. While CAR T cells can effectively kill cancer cells in tumors, they often come with off-tumor effects because these CARs’ target antigens are found endogenously in the body....

Tired T cells: Hypoxia Drives T cell Exhaustion in the Tumor Microenvironment

Monday, March 14, 2022 - 09:22
Banner image showing cancer cells in hypoxic conditions.

By Hunter Martinez

The paradigm shifting view of the immune system being leveraged to target cancer has led to numerous therapeutic breakthroughs. One major cell group responsible for this revelation is a T cell. T cells functioning in fighting cancer can become tired or “exhausted”.  T cell exhaustion is a state of cellular dysfunction resulting from repeated stimulation and chronic exposure to...

Synthetic Biotic Medicine as Immunotherapy Against Cancer: Evidence From Arginine-Producing Engineered Bacteria

Tuesday, February 1, 2022 - 09:12
3D banner image showing example of pathogenic bacteria.

By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

What do nuts, dairy and red meat have in common? In addition to the fact that they are all edible, one of the answers is L-arginine. This amino acid improves T cell’s response against tumor cells, which typically have low concentration of L-arginine. Increasing L-arginine intra-tumorally, in turn, increases the effect of immunotherapy drugs called immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). To understand ICIs, consider two examples of...

Immune Cell Metabolic Flux Influences Type I Diabetes

Friday, December 17, 2021 - 09:01
Banner image showing mitochondrion and metabolic pathways and targets, from Tocris.

By Hunter Martinez

What is Immunometabolism?

It is well established that abnormal metabolic environments can be a risk factor for disease development. One characteristic example is the role of dyslipidemia (high levels of lipids) in development of

Harnessing Natural Killer Cell Activity for Anti-Tumor Immunotherapy

Wednesday, November 24, 2021 - 09:34
Banner image showing the workflow for Natural Killer (NK) cells.

By Victoria Osinski, PhD

What’s “Natural” About Natural Killer (NK) Cells?

For immunologists, the term cytotoxicity often conjures up images of an army of antigen specific CD8+ T cells deploying to find and kill their target cells. However, natural killer (NK) cells are a distinct subset of cytotoxic immune lymphoid cells with both innate and adaptive immune functions. Innate functions are first-...

Understanding ‘Y’ in Breast Cancer: Crucial Role of DNA/RNA-binding Protein YB-1 in the Development, Pre-Invasive, and Metastatic Phases

Thursday, October 21, 2021 - 10:08
Akt expression in immersion fixed MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line using Mouse Anti-Akt Monoclonal Antibody and stained with NorthernLights 557-conjugated IgG Secondary Antibody.

Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

In the United States, 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in her lifetime.1 Despite the prevalence, cancer genesis is a mystery. The heterogeneity of cancers makes it difficult to study the precise mechanism of breast cancer development in vivo. Yet, research has shown that...

Successful Transplantation of Friedreich Ataxia Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC)-Derived Sensory Neurons in Dorsal Root Ganglia of Adult Rodents

Thursday, October 7, 2021 - 15:31
3D rendering of neuronal induced pluripotent stem cells as a banner image.

Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are a collection of cell bodies of sensory nerves carrying sensory information – including nociception, mechanoreception and proprioception – from peripheral nervous system (PNS) to the central nervous system (CNS). Degeneration of DRG, as observed in the autosomal recessive disease Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), manifests physiologically as impaired speech, difficulty walking, and loss of sensation in arms and legs. To mitigate FRDA, cell replacement therapy (CRT), such as...

Taking Biomarker Discovery From 2D to 3D: Increased Biological Activity of EVs Isolated From 3D Prostate Cancer Cultures

Friday, September 24, 2021 - 10:03
3D rendering of extracellular vesicles released from cells as a banner image.

Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

Tissues within the human body are made of a three-dimensional (3D) arrangement of cells working together to perform vital functions. The commonly used 2D monolayer cultures have limited expandability and cell-cell communication, making them less relevant to human physiology. By contrast, in 3D cultures, such as spheroids or organoids, cells can easily permeate through the scaffold allowing the cells to stretch out and have...

Using CometChip to Characterize Extracellular Regulators of DNA Repair: Does CD73 Levels in Cancer Cells Affect DNA Repair by Regulating Levels of Intracellular NAD+?

Thursday, August 26, 2021 - 11:50
3D rendering of CometChip as a banner image.

By Natalia Gurule, PhD

 

Historically, DNA repair pathways have been viewed from a tumor cell centric vantage point. Currently, the tumor microenvironment (TME) is recognized as having the potential to be a source of components that can participate in how a cancer cell responds to DNA damage. Within the TME, there are metabolites that can promote tumor cell growth and modulate immune cell...

Staufen1 Overabundance and the Consequent mTOR Hyperactivity in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s Diseases

Thursday, August 12, 2021 - 15:24
3D rendering of neurons as a banner image.

Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

Neurodegenerative disorders involve loss of function and, ultimately, death of neurons. Selective neuronal vulnerability has been observed in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. For example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) attack motor neurons, while Alzheimer’s disease (AD),...

Early T cell response is associated with mild COVID-19 and rapid SARS-CoV-2 clearance

Thursday, July 29, 2021 - 10:10
3D rendering of T cells as a banner image.

Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

SARS-CoV-2 induces both humoral and cellular immunity. A vaccine or natural infection invokes SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral components (antibodies from activated B cells) and cellular response (CD4+, CD8+ T cells) that can protect against subsequent infections. Following SARS-CoV-2 infection, the levels of...

New mass spectrometry technique presents new questions about MHC II expression regulation

Thursday, July 1, 2021 - 13:15
Immunocytochemical analysis of formalin fixed and permeabilized Daudi cells incubated with Mouse Anti-HLA DMA Monoclonal Antibody and detected with Anti-Mouse DyLight 488 (green), also showing Actin detected with Phalloidin 568 (red), and nuclei stained with DAPI (blue).

By Victoria Osinski, PhD

An exciting new study by Casasola-LaMacchia et al. was published earlier this year presenting a novel mass spectrometry method for detecting different MHC class...

Pyroptosis: Mechanisms mediating cell death and pro-inflammatory cytokine release

Friday, June 18, 2021 - 15:49
Immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed tissue of adenocarcinoma of the rectum using Caspase-1 antibody, peroxidase conjugate, and DAB chromogen.

By Victoria Osinski

Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of programmed cell death characterized by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18.1,10 It is a process distinct from apoptosis and necrosis (Table 1) and has been observed in the setting of multiple diseases including, but...

COVID-19 and metabolic dysregulation: SARS-CoV-2 injures human exocrine and endocrine pancreas

Thursday, June 3, 2021 - 17:55
Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded rat pancreas tissue with insulin antibody (red) and NKX6.1 antibody (green).

Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

Humans rely on the pancreas for digesting food and generating energy from it. SARS-CoV-2-mediated damage to the exocrine pancreas is evident from the pancreatitis, pancreatic enlargement, and abnormal levels of digestive enzymes in severe COVID-19. Likewise, increased propensity for hyperglycemia,...

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders involve extracellular Nef-induced modification of lipid rafts and redistribution of Alzheimer’s disease-related proteins

Friday, May 14, 2021 - 11:17
Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded ovarian cancer tissue sample with lipid-related protein Apolipoprotein E/ApoE.

Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

Cholesterol is an essential part of animal cell membranes. Cholesterol-rich lipid rafts maintain the fluidity and protein trafficking of plasma membranes. Cellular ABCA1 protein moves cholesterol and certain fats outside of the cell. Dysregulated lipid rafts and cholesterol metabolism...

SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Targets: The Present and Future of COVID-19

Thursday, April 29, 2021 - 17:48
Schematic of SARS-CoV-2 virus particle showing structural and non-structural proteins

Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

Current approved and candidate vaccines

SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein is the main target of COVID-19 vaccines. Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines are RNA-based vaccines while...

Approved COVID-19 Vaccines: Delivery of Nucleic Acid Cargo and Immune Response

Thursday, April 15, 2021 - 10:37
Banner image showing COVID-19 viruses with spike proteins.


By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD

Vaccination generates protective adaptive immune memory without the need for an actual viral infection. COVID-19 vaccines help recognize and fight off SARS-CoV-2 infection. In December 2020, US-FDA approved mRNA vaccines made by Pfizer-BioNTech and...

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