Flow Cytometry: TLR3 Antibody (40C1285.6) [NBP2-24875] - Expression of TLR3 protein on epithelial cells. HNEC (A), Detroit-562 (B) and FaDu (C) were stained intracellularly with FITC-Abs against TLR3 (open histograms) ...read more
Western Blot: TLR3 Antibody (40C1285.6) [NBP2-24875] - All the cell lines displayed a strong expression of TLR3 protein. Cell lysates were electrophoresed and blotted to PVDF membrane, which was probed with ...read more
Flow Cytometry: TLR3 Antibody (40C1285.6) [NBP2-24875] - Expression of TLR3 in Fravel, L363, OPM1, RPMI8226, XG1, and NCI-H929 as determined by flow cytometry. HCMLs were stained using an intracellular staining protocol ...read more
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: TLR3 Antibody (40C1285.6) [NBP2-24875] - Mouse colon using TLR3 antibody (clone 40C1285.6) at 1:500 dilution with HRP-DAB detection and hematoxylin counterstaining. Intense signal was ...read more
Western Blot: TLR3 Antibody (40C1285.6) [NBP2-24875] - Analysis of TLR3 in lysates from A) human intestine and F) ovary using TLR3 antibody at 3 ug/ml. Goat anti-mouse HRP conjugate was used as secondary.
Western Blot: TLR3 Antibody (40C1285.6) [NBP2-24875] - HEK293T cells were transfected with TLR3, TLR3-9-3 and TLR3-3-9. Western blot was performed using anti-TLR3 or anti-HA antibodies. Anti-Beta-actin antibodies were ...read more
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: TLR3 Antibody (40C1285.6) [NBP2-24875] - Tissue section of mouse intestine using TLR3 antibody (clone 40C1285.6) at 1:500 dilution with HRP-DAB detection and hematoxylin counterstaining. ...read more
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: TLR3 Antibody (40C1285.6) [NBP2-24875] - Analysis of TLR3 in (A) human gut lumen (longitudinal section, transverse region) using this antibody at 10 ug/ml (Data courtesy Dr. Elizabeth ...read more
Use in Flow-intracellular reported in scientific literature (PMID: 24836676). Use in blocking/ neutralizing reported in scientific literature (PMID: 28894449). Use in Bioactivity reported in scientific literature (PMID:28894449).
Store at 4C short term. Aliquot and store at -20C long term. Avoid freeze-thaw cycles.
0.05% Sodium Azide
Protein G purified
Alternate Names for TLR3 Antibody (40C1285.6) - BSA Free
toll-like receptor 3
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein that contributes to the innate immune response, recognizing distinct pathogen-associate molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associate molecular patterns (DAMPs) (1,2). The TLR family member TLR3 specifically recognizes and binds double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from viruses and the synthetic analog polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) (1-5). TLR3 is typically expressed in the endosomes of innate immune cells including macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, and dendritic cells (DCs) (1-5). TLR3 is also localized on the cell surface of fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and vascular endothelial cells (1-5). The human TLR3 protein is 904 amino acids (aa) in length with a theoretical molecular weight (MW) of 104 kDa (6). It consists of a 23 aa signal sequence, a horseshoe-shaped 681 aa extracellular domain (ECD) containing 23 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a 21 aa helical transmembrane domain, and a 179 aa cytoplasmic region containing a Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain (1,6). Upon ligand binding, TLR3-ECD dimerizes and the adapter protein TIR-domain-containing adapter inducing interferon-beta (TRIF/TICAM1) is recruited (1-5). TRIF interacts with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) and TRAF6 and results in a signal transduction cascade involving activation of transcription factors interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), IRF7, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and activation protein-1 (AP-1) (1-5). Transcription factors translocate to the nucleus, driving type I interferon (IFN) production, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and tumor regression (1-5). Furthermore, TRIF can also interact with receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 1 (RIP1) and RIP3 leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis (1,2,5). Conversely, NF-kappaB transcription can also promote chemokine production and promote the WNT pathway associated with stemness and pro-tumorigenic properties (1,5).
Given the role of TLR3 in immune response, its expression or dysfunction has been associated with a number of pathologies from chronic inflammation to autoimmune disorders and cancer (1-5,7). TLR3 is expressed in many cancer types, often related to viral infection, such as cervical cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), melanoma, breast cancer, and prostate cancer (1,5). TLR3 signaling has a dual role in cancer, either contributing to pro- or anti-tumor properties depending on the type of cancer (1,5). Therapeutic targeting the TLR3 signaling pathway is under investigation. TLR3 inhibitors or antagonists are being studied for the treatment autoimmune and inflammatory disorders such as of sepsis and atherosclerosis (2,8). TLR3 agonists, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors or therapeutic agents, are being studied as immunotherapeutic treatments of many cancers such as colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, and melanoma (7).
1. Zheng X, Li S, Yang H. Roles of Toll-Like Receptor 3 in Human Tumors. Front Immunol. 2021;12:667454. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.667454
2. Zhuang C, Chen R, Zheng Z, Lu J, Hong C. Toll-Like Receptor 3 in Cardiovascular Diseases. Heart Lung Circ. 2022;S1443-9506(22)00080-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2022.02.012
3. Bianchi F, Pretto S, Tagliabue E, Balsari A, Sfondrini L. Exploiting poly(I:C) to induce cancer cell apoptosis. Cancer Biol Ther. 2017;18(10):747-756. https://doi.org/10.1080/15384047.2017.1373220
4. Matsumoto M, Seya T. TLR3: interferon induction by double-stranded RNA including poly(I:C). Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008;60(7):805-812. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2007.11.005
5. Muresan XM, Bouchal J, Culig Z, Soucek K. Toll-Like Receptor 3 in Solid Cancer and Therapy Resistance. Cancers (Basel). 2020;12(11):3227. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113227
6. Uniprot (O15455)
7. Le Naour J, Galluzzi L, Zitvogel L, Kroemer G, Vacchelli E. Trial watch: TLR3 agonists in cancer therapy. Oncoimmunology. 2020;9(1):1771143. https://doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2020.1771143
8. Gao W, Xiong Y, Li Q, Yang H. Inhibition of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling as a Promising Therapy for Inflammatory Diseases: A Journey from Molecular to Nano Therapeutics. Front Physiol. 2017;8:508. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00508
This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt.
Bauer JMJ. Interferon-b moduliert die Expression von Toll-like Rezeptoren in mononuklearen Blutzellen und induziert Toll-like Rezeptor 7 in plasmazytoiden dendritischen Zellen von Patienten mit Multipler Sklerose. thesis. 2015 Nov 12
The role of TLR4 in breast cancer Toll like receptors (TLRs) are highly conserved proteins that are first known for their role in pathogen recognition and immune response activation. In order to elicit the necessary immune response in reaction to a foreign pathogen, TLRs trigger cy... Read full blog post.
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