Recombinant Human TNF-alpha Protein


Recombinant Human TNF-alpha (Catalog # 210-TA) has a molecular weight (MW) of 53.1 kDa as analyzed by SEC-MALS, suggesting that this protein is a homotrimer.  MW may differ from predicted MW due to post-translational more
Recombinant Human TNF-alpha (Catalog # 210‑TA) induces cytotoxicity in the L-929 mouse fibroblast cell line in the presence of the metabolic inhibitor actinomycin D. The ED50 for this effect is 25‑100 pg/mL.
1 µg/lane of Recombinant Human TNF-alpha was resolved by SDS-PAGE with silver staining, under reducing (R) conditions, showing a band at 17 kDa.

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Reactivity HuSpecies Glossary
Applications Bioactivity

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Recombinant Human TNF-alpha Protein Summary

Additional Information
Analyzed by SEC-MALS. A new economically priced TNF-alpha is available! The new protein is HEK293 expressed!
Details of Functionality
Measured in a cytotoxicity assay using L‑929 mouse fibroblast cells in the presence of the metabolic inhibitor actinomycin D. Matthews, N. and M.L. Neale (1987) in Lymphokines and Interferons, A Practical Approach. Clemens, M.J. et al. (eds): IRL Press. 221. The ED50 for this effect is 25-100 pg/mL.
E. coli-derived human TNF-alpha protein
Val77-Leu233, with and without an N-terminal Met
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Met & Val77
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Endotoxin Note
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


  • Bioactivity
Theoretical MW
17 kDa.
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
17 kDa, reducing conditions
Reviewed Applications
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210-TA in the following application:

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210-TA in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 0.1-1 mg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human TNF-alpha Protein

  • APC1 protein
  • Cachectin
  • Cachetin
  • DIF
  • TNF
  • TNF, monocyte-derived
  • TNFA
  • TNF-A
  • TNFalpha
  • TNF-alpha
  • TNF-alphacachectin
  • TNFATNF, macrophage-derived
  • TNFG1F
  • TNFSF2
  • TNFSF2TNF superfamily, member 2
  • tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily, member 2)
  • tumor necrosis factor alpha
  • Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2
  • tumor necrosis factor
  • tumor necrosis factor-alpha


Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha ), also known as cachectin and TNFSF2, is the prototypic ligand of the TNF superfamily. It is a pleiotropic molecule that plays a central role in inflammation, immune system development, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism (1, 2). Human TNF-alpha consisits of a 35 amino acid (aa) cytoplasmic domain, a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 177 aa extracellular domain (ECD) (3). Within the ECD, human TNF-alpha shares 97% aa sequence identity with rhesus and 71%-92% with bovine, canine, cotton rat, equine, feline, mouse, porcine, and rat TNF-alpha . TNF-alpha is produced by a wide variety of immune, epithelial, endothelial, and tumor cells (1, 2). TNF-alpha is assembled intracellularly to form a noncovalently linked homotrimer which is expressed on the cell surface (4). Cell surface TNF-alpha can induce the lysis of neighboring tumor cells and virus infected cells, and it can generate its own downstream cell signaling following ligation by soluble TNFR I (2, 5). Shedding of membrane bound TNF-alpha by TACE/ADAM17 releases the bioactive cytokine, a 55 kDa soluble trimer of the TNF-alpha extracellular domain (6-8). TNF-alpha binds the ubiquitous 55-60 kDa TNF RI (9, 10) and the hematopoietic cell-restricted 80 kDa TNF RII (11, 12), both of which are also expressed as homotrimers (1, 2, 13). Both type I and type II receptors bind TNF-alpha with comparable affinity (14), although only TNF RI contains a cytoplasmic death domain which triggers the activation of apoptosis. Soluble forms of both types of receptors are released and can neutralize the biological activity of TNF-alpha (15).
  1. Zelova, H. and J. Hosek (2013) Inflamm. Res. 62:641.
  2. Juhasz, K. et al. (2013) Expert Rev. Clin. Immunol. 9:335.
  3. Pennica, D. et al. (1984) Nature 312:724.
  4. Tang, P. et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35:8216.
  5. Perez, C. et al. (1990) Cell 63:251.
  6. Black, R.A. et al. (1997) Nature 385:729.
  7. Moss, M.L. et al. (1997) Nature 385:733.
  8. Gearing, A.J.H. et al. (1994) Nature 370:555.
  9. Schall, T.J. et al. (1990) Cell 61:361.
  10. Loetscher, H. et al. (1990) Cell 61:351.
  11. Dembic, Z. et al. (1990) Cytokine 2:231.
  12. Smith, C.A. et al. (1990) Science 248:1019.
  13. Loetscher, H. et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266:18324.
  14. Pinckard, J.K. et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272:10784.
  15. Engelmann, H. et al. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265:1531.

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Publications for TNF-alpha (210-TA)(749)

We have publications tested in 17 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Rat, Bovine, Canine, Complex Species Category, Drosophila, Feline, Guinea Pig, Hamster, N/A, Ovine, Porcine, Primate - Chlorocebus pygerythrus (Vervet Monkey), Primate - Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating Monkey or Cynomolgus Macaque), Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque), Rabbit.

We have publications tested in 17 applications: Activiation, Bioassay, Cell Culture, ELISA (Capture), ELISA (Standard), ELISA Control, ELISA Standard, Hemofiltration Procedure, IHC-P, In Vivo, Not Specified, Spheroid Culture, Standard, Stimulation, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR, Tissue Culture, Western Blot.

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Tissue Culture
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Complex Species Category
Guinea Pig
Primate - Chlorocebus pygerythrus (Vervet Monkey)
Primate - Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating Monkey or Cynomolgus Macaque)
Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 749. Show All 749 Publications.
Publications using 210-TA Applications Species
P Dörschmann, C Seeba, T Thalenhors, J Roider, A Klettner Anti-inflammatory properties of antiangiogenic fucoidan in retinal pigment epithelium cells Heliyon, 2023;9(4):e15202. 2023 [PMID: 37123974] (Cell Culture, Porcine) Cell Culture Porcine
J Nassour, LG Aguiar, A Correia, TT Schmidt, L Mainz, S Przetocka, C Haggblom, N Tadepalle, A Williams, MN Shokhirev, SC Akincilar, V Tergaonkar, GS Shadel, J Karlseder Telomere-to-mitochondria signalling by ZBP1 mediates replicative crisis Nature, 2023;614(7949):767-773. 2023 [PMID: 36755096] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
H Ben Halima, N Zine, J Bausells, N Jaffrezic-, A Errachid A Novel Cortisol Immunosensor Based on a Hafnium Oxide/Silicon Structure for Heart Failure Diagnosis Micromachines, 2022;13(12):. 2022 [PMID: 36557534] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
D Cai, M Fraunfelde, SY Chen Blood serum analysis: A modified sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol MethodsX, 2022;9(0):101923. 2022 [PMID: 36483291] (ELISA Control, Human) ELISA Control Human
HJ Kim, SH Kim, YS Oh, SR Lee, HD Chae Dienogest May Reduce Estradiol- and Inflammatory Cytokine-Induced Cell Viability and Proliferation and Inhibit the Pathogenesis of Endometriosis: A Cell Culture- and Mouse Model-Based Study Biomedicines, 2022;10(11):. 2022 [PMID: 36428561] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
K Li, Y Zhu, P Zhang, M Alini, S Grad, Z Li Anti-inflammatory and pro-anabolic effects of 5-aminosalicylic acid on human inflammatory osteoarthritis models Journal of Orthopaedic Translation, 2023;38(0):106-116. 2023 [PMID: 36381242] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
B Saravi, Z Li, V Basoli, S Grad, S Häckel, CE Albers, M Alini, H Schmal, P Obid, G Lang In Vitro Characterization of a Tissue Renin-Angiotensin System in Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells Cells, 2022;11(21):. 2022 [PMID: 36359814] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
DR Calabrese, T Tsao, M Magnen, C Valet, Y Gao, B Mallavia, JJ Tian, EA Aminian, KM Wang, A Shemesh, EB Punzalan, A Sarma, CS Calfee, SA Christenso, CR Langelier, SR Hays, JA Golden, LE Leard, ME Kleinhenz, NA Kolaitis, RJ Shah, A Venado, LL Lanier, JR Greenland, DM Sayah, A Ardehali, J Kukreja, SS Weigt, JA Belperio, JP Singer, MR Looney NKG2D receptor activation drives primary graft dysfunction severity and poor lung transplantation outcomes JCI Insight, 2022;0(0):. 2022 [PMID: 36346670] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
S Hayashi, CK Muraleedha, M Oku, S Tomar, SP Hogan, M Quiros, CA Parkos, A Nusrat Intestinal epithelial BLT1 promotes mucosal repair JCI Insight, 2022;0(0):. 2022 [PMID: 36301666] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Bhuyan S, Pal B, Pathak L, Saikia P, Mitra S, Gayan S, Mokhtari R, Li H, Ramana C, Baishya D, Das B Targeting hypoxia-induced tumor stemness by activating pathogen-induced stem cell niche defense. Front Immunol, 0;13(0):933329. 0 [PMID: 36248858] (Bioassay, Complex Species Category) Bioassay Complex Species Category