Autophagy is a process of bulk protein degradation through an autophagosomic-lysosomal pathway. Components of the cytoplasm are sequestered and moved into the lysosome/vacuole lumen where they are broken down into their basic components and returned to the cytosol for reuse. Autophagy is important for differentiation, survival during nutrient deprivation and normal growth control, and is often defective in tumor cells.
Autophagy can be divided into multiple subtypes: macroautophagy and microautophagy, specific and non-specific autophagy, and pexophagy, mitophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy. Macroautophagy involves the creation of a phagophore, leading to the formation of the autophagosome which can consume whole organelles and deliver them to the lysosome for degradation. Microautophagy involves the sequestering of cytosolic components at the surface of the lysosome. Autophagy can act specifically, such as when it degrades the peroxisome or cleans bacteria from an infected host cell, or it can act non-specifically by consuming components of the cytosol in response to starvation cues in order to provide energy for the cell.
Links to cancer, hypoxia, and neurodegeneration have brought autophagy to the forefront of scientific studies in recent years. It now appears that autophagy’s ubiquitous role in cellular maintenance may mean that it plays some role in almost all disease states.
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ATG5 and LC3 antibody preparations for autophagy research
At Novus Biologicals, we specialize in a wide range of antibodies for biomedical and biological research. This includes a full range of high quality LC3 antibody and ATG5 antibody preparations.
Autophagy (the bulk breakdown of cellular proteins) is a natural process that is implicated in organ rejection and cancerous tumors. With our range of LC3 and ATG5 antibody sera, which include highly specific LC3A and LC3B antibody products, we are at the very forefront of this exciting science.
What is an ATG5 antibody?
ATG5 is one of a series of anti-thymocyte globulins. It plays an important role in autophagy, or tissue breakdown, and levels of ATG5 are often defective in tumor cells.
There are three known forms of ATG5, each with its own specific anti-ATG5 antibody. These are further differentiated into polyclonal and monoclonal ATG5 antibodies derived from various mammalian species. This means we have a full range of sera for detection of endogenous ATG5, in both its conjugated and free form.
LC3-I antibody and LC3-II antibody preparations
The LC3 antibody family is important to the study of autophagy. LC3, a homolog of ATG8, is one of 16 proteins used in vitro.
Various LC3 antibody preparations track the autophagy process. LC3 converts to LC3-I (antigen of the LC3-I antibody) and LC3-II (antigen of the LC3-II antibody) during autophagy; during the conversion, LC3 is tracked using the relevant LC3 antibody preparation.
LC3-I and LC3-II antibody preparations are used routinely in immunoblot assays. The amount of converted LC3-II correlates to the number of autophagosomes detected by LC3-II antibody analysis.
However, recent results show that LC3-II, itself, is degraded by the process, making correlation of LC3-II antibody results problematic. In addition, using an LC3 antibody does not always indicate autophagic flux. These experiments show the importance of using LC3-I and LC3-II antibodies in the presence and absence of lysosomal proteases.
In vitro LC3A antibody and LC3B antibody experiments
Our LC3A and LC3B antibody products are used in the assay of MAP1A and MAP1B proteins, which mediate interactions between components of the cytoskeleton and the microtubules. The LC3A/B antibodies cross-react with the LC3-I and LC3-II antibody domains.
MAP genes consist of one heavy chain unit linked to multiple light chain (LC3) subunits; they are involved in other processes alongside formation of autophagosomal vacuoles.
The choice of using an LC3B or LC3A antibody depends on the gene being studied. For example, sheep polyclonal MAP LC3A antibody is specific to that gene, which is absent from the thymus and peripheral leucocytes (so this LC3A antibody would not be used for research in these areas).
When choosing an LC3A or LC3B antibody, you will generally find a full background on the product's datasheet with indications as to its function and location. For example, searching for the sheep polyclonal anti-MAP1A/B LC3B antibody tells us it may mediate microtubule binding during nervous system development as well as play a role in autophagy.
At Novus Biologicals we have a vast and competitively priced antibody database covering every area of research. Even if it's the very latest LC3A antibody you need, you will find it at www.novusbio.com.