TLR4: Playing Roles in Apoptosis and Autoimmunity

Wed, 08/28/2013 - 08:31

TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family that plays a key role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. Scientists have found that TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans, with a high degree of structural and functional homology. TLR proteins recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed on a wide spectrum of exogenous and endogenous ligands – including infectious agents - and regulate the cytokine production required for effective immunity development. TLR4 antibody, has been used in co-culture studies to demonstrate a complex, functional cellular interaction between tissue-resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and peripheral blood neutrophils (1).

Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: TLR4 Antibody Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: TLR4 Antibody

Nowicki, et. al. used the TLR4 antibody to prove that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced cell death and apoptosis in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cultures relies up on TLR4 instead of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) as previously hypothesized (2). Cohen’s group employed TLR4 antibody to dissect the signaling pathways involved in pan-differentiation of CD34 positive cells into tumor-competent dendritic cells (3). They found that both STAT3 and STAT5-dependent pathways competitively regulate the process of multilog expansion, programming, and dendritic cell (DC1) polarization of these cells. An interesting role of TLR4 in autoimmunity and adaptive immune responses was found in gene array screens on Crohn’s Disease (CD) with the TLR4 antibody in Lunardi’s lab (4). Several pathogenically relevant autoantigen targets were identified, including flagellin, the Pals 1-associted tight junction protein.

  1. PMID: 20682625
  2. PMID: 19705455
  3. PMID: 18577706
  4. PMID: 18796002

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