TLR4 - A Guardian of Innate Immunity

Fri, 11/21/2014 - 09:16

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) belongs to the family of Toll-like receptors (TLR), and plays a main role in pathogen recognition and innate immunity system activation. The TLR family members are highly conserved proteins that all contain a high degree of structural and functional homology in organisms from Drosophila all the way up to humans. TLRs regulate the cellular cytokine production required for efficient innate immunity development through their recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed across a wide range of ligands, including infectious agents. TLR4 recognizes the Gram-negative bacterial membrane component lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: TLR4 Antibody Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: TLR4 Antibody


Recent immunohistochemical and western blot studies with the TLR4 antibody by an Italian research group determined that expression of TLRs 3, 4, and 7 is in enteric nervous system (murine intestine and human ileum) and lower dorsal root ganglia (DRG)1. Cohen’s group performed TLR4 antibody immunofluorescence to map STAT-dependent signaling pathways in dendritic cell-based immunotherapy models2. They found that successful expansion and programming of DCs requires sequential activation of STAT3 and STAT5 followed by exposure to Flt3L, IL-6, and GMCSF. Further inflammation studies with the TLR4 antibody allowed Tian et al to identify a TLR4-MyD88-JNK/NFkB signaling pathway involved in cardiac ischaemia triggered by HSP603. Carrithers et al used the TLR4 antibody in flow cytometry and immunoblotting to profile CD31-deficient mice and the septic shock pathway in response to endotoxins4. The TLR4 antibody was also employed in flow studies by Lu’s group to investigate TLR4-independent downstream pathways of the TLR4 co-receptor MD2 in mononuclear cells, where they found interferon-gamma-dependent upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1)5. Novus Biologicals offers TLR4 reagents for your research needs including:


  1. 19546475
  2. 18577706
  3. 23447644
  4. 15632011
  5. 23800176

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