Western Blot: STING/TMEM173 Antibody [NBP2-24683] - STING/TMEM173 expression was induced in human breast MDA-MB-231 cells followed by Western blotting using STING/TMEM173 Antibody antibody (1:1000). Only one specific ...read more
Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: STING/TMEM173 Antibody [NBP2-24683] - RH-30 cells were fixed for 10 minutes using 10% formalin and then permeabilized for 5 minutes using 1X PBS + 0.05% Triton X-100. The cells ...read more
Western Blot: STING/TMEM173 Antibody [NBP2-24683] - Total protein from THP-1, HT-29, U2OS cells and human spleen was separated on a 12% gel by SDS-PAGE, transferred to PVDF membrane and blocked in 5% non-fat milk in ...read more
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: STING/TMEM173 Antibody [NBP2-24683] - Human colon cancer tissue section using STING/TMEM173 Antibody at 1:100 dilution with detection employing HRP-conjugated secondary antibody. The ...read more
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: STING/TMEM173 Antibody [NBP2-24683] - Mouse lung tissue section using STING/TMEM173 Antibody at 1:150 dilution with detection employing HRP-conjugated secondary antibody. The signal was ...read more
Flow Cytometry: STING/TMEM173 Antibody [NBP2-24683] - An intracellular stain was performed on U937 cells with NBP2-24683AF594 (blue) and a matched isotype control (orange). Cells were fixed with 4% PFA and then ...read more
Flow Cytometry: STING/TMEM173 Antibody - BSA Free [NBP2-24683] - An intracellular stain was performed on THP-1 cells with STING/TMEM173 Antibody NBP2-24683AF647 (blue) and a matched isotype control NBP2-24891 (orange). ...read more
Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: STING/TMEM173 Antibody [NBP2-24683] - HT-29 cells were fixed for 10 minutes using 10% formalin and then permeabilized for 5 minutes using 1X PBS + 0.05% Triton-X100. The cells ...read more
Flow Cytometry: STING/TMEM173 Antibody [NBP2-24683] - An intracellular stain was performed on THP-1 cells with STING/TMEM173 Antibody and a matched isotype control. Cells were fixed with 4% PFA and then permeablized ...read more
Flow Cytometry: STING/TMEM173 Antibody [NBP2-24683] - An intracellular stain was performed on RH30 cells with STING/TMEM173 Antibody (blue) and a matched isotype control (orange). Cells were fixed with 4% PFA and then ...read more
Use in ELISA reported in scientific literature (PMID:34905508).Use in IHC-Fr reported in scientific literature (PMID:33745949)..
42 kDa. Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is encoded by the TMEM173 gene and is an adaptor molecule involved in the activation of innate immune responses to PAMPS (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) and DAMPS (damage-associated molecular patterns). STING specifically recognizes cytosolic DNA products derived from pathogens (e.g., cytomegalovirus, vaccinia virus, Listeria monocytogenes) or dead cells (1, 2). In the STING pathway, dsDNA derived from pathogens or damaged cells serves as a substrate for the enzyme cGAS (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase) which produces the second messenger cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) from ATP and GTP (3, 4). Under steady-state conditions STING (theoretical molecular weight 42 kDa), a protein localizes to the ER membrane. Upon activation by dsDNA derived second messenger (cGAMP), STING translocates to the Golgi apparatus as a homodimer. Once STING has trafficked to the perinuclear region, it activates TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and NF-?B leading to the production of cytokines (e.g., type I interferon) (2, 4). Mutations in the TMEM173 gene affecting STING expression are associated with the development of the auto-inflammatory disease SAVI (STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy) (2). A novel SAVI dominant mutation in the TMEM173 human gene (V155M) leads to increased localization of STING to the Golgi and perinuclear region, indicative of an activated state (1). Hallmarks of SAVI, a rare inflammatory disease, include severe vasculitis in extremities and lung inflammation (7).
1. Patel, S., & Jin, L. (2019). TMEM173 variants and potential importance to human biology and disease. Genes and Immunity. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41435-018-0029-9
2. Jounai, N., Kobiyama, K., Takeshita, F., & Ishii, K. J. (2013). Recognition of damage-associated molecular patterns related to nucleic acids during inflammation and vaccination. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2012.00168
3. Xiao, T. S., & Fitzgerald, K. A. (2013). The cGAS-STING Pathway for DNA Sensing. Molecular Cell. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2013.07.004
4. Kato, K., Omura, H., Ishitani, R., & Nureki, O. (2017). Cyclic GMP-AMP as an Endogenous Second Messenger in Innate Immune Signaling by Cytosolic DNA. Annual Review of Biochemistry. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-biochem-061516-044813
5. Crowl, J. T., Gray, E. E., Pestal, K., Volkman, H. E., & Stetson, D. B. (2017). Intracellular Nucleic Acid Detection in Autoimmunity. Annual Review of Immunology. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-051116-052331
This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt.
Performed on multiple human cancer cells with and without Sting induction. Specific band detected ~37 kDa without other non-specific bands. Primary antibody was used at 1:1000 in 5% milk in IBS-T with traditional HRP detection.
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