Toll-like Receptors (TLRs)

The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) belong to a family of innate immune receptors which includes Nod-like receptors (NLRs) and RIG-I like receptors (RLRs). The TLRs recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to activate innate immunity and inflammatory cascades, functioning as the first line of defense against foreign pathogens. TLR signaling activation is initiated in a MyD88 dependent mechanism by the Toll/IL-receptor (TIR) domain which associates with the adaptor molecule, MyD88, or through a MyD88 independent mechanism through the activation of TRIF and TRAF3.

 

Browse Our TLR Ligands

 

Browse Our TLR Inhibitors



 

Ligands

Adaptor Proteins

Localization

Cell Expression

TLR1

Bacterial lipoproteins

MyD88/MAL

Cell surface

B Cell

T cell

Dendritic Cell

Macrophage

Granulocyte

TLR2

Lipoteichoic actid (LTA)

Peptidoglycan (PGN)

Bacterial lipoproteins

Zymosan

MyD88/MAL

Cell surface

Dendritic Cell

Macrophage

Granulocyte

TLR3

Double-stranded RNA

TRIF

Endosome

T Cell

Dendritic Cell

Macrophage

TLR4

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)

MyD88/MAL

TRIF/TRAM

Cell surface

B Cell

T cell

Dendritic Cell

Macrophage

Granulocyte

TLR5

Flagellin

MyD88/TRIF

Cell surface

Dendritic Cell

Macrophage

Granulocyte

TLR6

LTA

Diacyl lipoproteins

Zymosan

MyD88/MAL

Cell surface

B Cell

Dendritic Cell

Macrophage

TLR7

ssRNA

imidazoquinolines

MyD88

Endosome

B Cell

Dendritic Cell

Macrophage

TLR8

ssRNA

imidazoquinolines

MyD88

Endosome

Dendritic Cell

Macrophage

TLR9

Unmethylated GpG

DNA

MyD88

Endosome

B Cell

T cell

Dendritic Cell

Macrophage

TLR10
(human)

Unknown

Unknown

Unknown

B Cell

T cell

Dendritic Cell

Macrophage

TLR11
(mouse)

Profilin

MyD88

Endosome

Macrophages

TLR12
(mouse)

Profilin

MyD88

Endosome

Dendritic Cells

Macrophages

TLR13
(mouse)

Ribosomal RNA

MyD88

Endosome

Macrophages

Dendritic Cells