TLR4 Antibody [DyLight 350]

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Product Details

Summary
Reactivity Hu, Mu, RtSpecies Glossary
Applications WB, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P
Clonality
Polyclonal
Host
Rabbit
Conjugate
DyLight 350

TLR4 Antibody [DyLight 350] Summary

Immunogen
This TLR4 antibody was developed against a synthetic peptide made to the C-terminal portion of the human TLR4 protein (between residues 650-710) [Uniprot: O00206].
Localization
Membrane
Isotype
IgG
Clonality
Polyclonal
Host
Rabbit
Gene
TLR4
Purity
Immunogen affinity purified
Innovator's Reward
Test in a species/application not listed above to receive a full credit towards a future purchase.

Applications/Dilutions

Dilutions
  • Western Blot
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin
Application Notes
Optimal dilution of this antibody should be experimentally determined.
Theoretical MW
95.7 kDa.
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Storage
Store at 4C in the dark.
Buffer
50mM Sodium Borate
Preservative
0.05% Sodium Azide
Purity
Immunogen affinity purified

Notes



DyLight (R) is a trademark of Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. and its subsidiaries.

Alternate Names for TLR4 Antibody [DyLight 350]

  • ARMD10
  • CD_antigen: CD284
  • CD284 antigen
  • CD284
  • EC 3.2.2.6
  • EC:3.2.2.6
  • homolog of Drosophila toll
  • hToll
  • TLR4
  • TLR-4
  • toll like receptor 4 protein
  • TOLL
  • toll-like receptor 4

Background

TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) is a type-1 transmembrane glycoprotein that is a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) belonging to the TLR family (1-3). TLR4 is expressed in many tissues and is most abundantly expressed in the placenta, spleen, and peripheral blood leukocytes (1). Human TLR4 is synthesized as a 839 amino acid (aa) protein containing a signal sequence (1-23 aa), an extracellular domain (ECD) (24-631 aa), a transmembrane domain (632-652 aa), and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) cytoplasmic domain (652-839 aa) with a theoretical molecular weight of 95 kDa (3, 4). The ECD contains 21 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and has a horseshoe-shaped structure (3, 4). TLR4 requires binding with the co-receptor myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2) largely via hydrophilic interactions for proper ligand sensing and signaling (2-4). In general, the TLR family plays a role in activation of innate immunity and responds to a variety of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) (5). TLR4 is specifically responsive to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is found on the outer-membrane of most ram-negative bacteria (3-5). Activation of TLR4 requires binding of a ligand, such as LPS to MD2, followed by MD2-LPS complex binding to TLR4, resulting in a partial complex (TLR4-MD2/LPS) (3, 5). To become fully active, two partial complexes must dimerize thereby allowing the TIR domains of TLR4 to bind other adapter molecular and initiate signaling, triggering an inflammatory response and cytokine production (3, 5).

TLR4 signaling occurs through two distinct pathways: The MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88)-dependent pathway and the MyD88-independent (TRIF-dependent, TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta) pathway (3, 5-7). The MyD88-dependent pathway occurs mainly at the plasma membrane and involves the binding of MyD88-adaptor-like (MAL) protein followed by a signaling cascade that results in the activation of transcription factors including nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) that promote the secretion of inflammatory molecules and increased phagocytosis (5-7). Conversely, the MyD88-independent pathway occurs after TLR4-MD2 complex internalization in the endosomal compartment. This pathway involves the binding of adapter proteins TRIF and TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM), a signaling activation cascade resulting in IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) translocation into the nucleus, and secretion of interferon-beta (INF-beta) genes and increased phagocytosis (5-7).

Given its expression on immune-related cells and its role in inflammation, TLR4 activation can contribute to various diseases (6-8). For instance, several studies have found that TLR4 activation is associated with neurodegeneration and several central nervous system (CNS) pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease (6, 7). Furthermore, TLR4 mutations have been shown to lead to higher rates of infections and increased susceptibility to sepsis (7-8). One potential therapeutic approach aimed at targeting TLR4 and neuroinflammation is polyphenolic compounds which include flavonoids and phenolic acids and alcohols (8).

Alternative names for TLR4 includes 76B357.1, ARMD10, CD284 antigen, CD284, EC 3.2.2.6, homolog of Drosophila toll, hToll, toll like receptor 4 protein, TOLL, toll-like receptor 4.

References

1. Vaure, C., & Liu, Y. (2014). A comparative review of toll-like receptor 4 expression and functionality in different animal species. Frontiers in immunology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2014.00316

2. Park, B. S., & Lee, J. O. (2013). Recognition of lipopolysaccharide pattern by TLR4 complexes. Experimental & molecular medicine. https://doi.org/10.1038/emm.2013.97

3. Krishnan, J., Anwar, M.A., & Choi, S. (2016) TLR4 (Toll-Like Receptor 4). In: Choi S. (eds) Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6438-9_592-1

4. Botos, I., Segal, D. M., & Davies, D. R. (2011). The structural biology of Toll-like receptors. Structure. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2011.02.004

5. Lu, Y. C., Yeh, W. C., & Ohashi, P. S. (2008). LPS/TLR4 signal transduction pathway. Cytokine. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2008.01.006

6. Leitner, G. R., Wenzel, T. J., Marshall, N., Gates, E. J., & Klegeris, A. (2019). Targeting toll-like receptor 4 to modulate neuroinflammation in central nervous system disorders. Expert opinion on therapeutic targets. https://doi.org/10.1080/14728222.2019.1676416

7. Molteni, M., Gemma, S., & Rossetti, C. (2016). The Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Infectious and Noninfectious Inflammation. Mediators of inflammation. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6978936

8. Rahimifard, M., Maqbool, F., Moeini-Nodeh, S., Niaz, K., Abdollahi, M., Braidy, N., Nabavi, S. M., & Nabavi, S. F. (2017). Targeting the TLR4 signaling pathway by polyphenols: A novel therapeutic strategy for neuroinflammation. Ageing research reviews. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2017.02.004

Limitations

This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt.

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Applications: WB, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P

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Product General Protocols

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Video Protocols

WB Video Protocol
ICC/IF Video Protocol

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Secondary Antibodies

 

Isotype Controls

Other Available Formats

Alexa Fluor 350 NBP1-78427AF350
Alexa Fluor 405 NBP1-78427AF405
Alexa Fluor 488 NBP1-78427AF488
Alexa Fluor 532 NBP1-78427AF532
Alexa Fluor 594 NBP1-78427AF594
Alexa Fluor 647 NBP1-78427AF647
Alexa Fluor 700 NBP1-78427AF700
Alexa Fluor 750 NBP1-78427AF750
Biotin NBP1-78427B
DyLight 350 NBP1-78427UV
DyLight 405 NBP1-78427V
DyLight 488 NBP1-78427G
DyLight 550 NBP1-78427R
DyLight 650 NBP1-78427C
DyLight 680 NBP1-78427FR
DyLight 755 NBP1-78427IR
FITC NBP1-78427F
HRP NBP1-78427H
Janelia Fluor 549 NBP1-78427JF549
Janelia Fluor 646 NBP1-78427JF646

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Blogs on TLR4. Showing 1-10 of 11 blog posts - Show all blog posts.

PAMPs and DAMPs: What is the same and what is different about these molecules?
By Victoria OsinskiWhat are PAMPs and DAMPsInflammation results from stimuli signaling damage or infection. The inflammatory response can be beneficial or harmful depending on the type and duration of stimuli. The s...  Read full blog post.

How to identify B cell subsets using flow cytometry
By Victoria OsinskiUsing flow cytometry to identify B cell subsetsIdentifying cellular subsets by flow cytometry requires careful and thorough planning in order to ensure the correct subset of cells are identified a...  Read full blog post.

Lipopolysaccharide from gut microbiome localizes in human atherosclerotic plaques and promotes TLR4-mediated oxidative stress
By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition in which plaques of fats and other substances slowly buildup on the inner walls of arteries to restrict blood flow. In atheroscle...  Read full blog post.

Toll-like receptors in the intestinal epithelial cells
By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are microbe-sensing proteins that act as first responders to danger signals. TLRs help the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) recognize commensal bacteria...  Read full blog post.

The role of STING/TMEM173 in gamma and encephalitis Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
Stimulator of interferon genes (STING), also known as TMEM173, promotes the production of the interferon’s IFN-alpha and IFN-beta.  STING possesses three functional domains: a cytoplasmic C-terminal tail, a central globular domain, and four N-...  Read full blog post.

TRIF/TICAM1 and mitochondrial dynamics in the innate immune response
TRIF, also known as toll like receptor adaptor molecule 1 or TICAM1, is known for its role in invading foreign pathogens as part of our innate immune response. TRIF/TICAM1 is a TIR-domain adaptor protein (toll/interleukin-1 receptor) that interacts...  Read full blog post.

The role of TLR4 in breast cancer
Toll like receptors (TLRs) are highly conserved proteins that are first known for their role in pathogen recognition and immune response activation.  In order to elicit the necessary immune response in reaction to a foreign pathogen, TLRs trigger cy...  Read full blog post.

cIAP2 - balancing cell death and cell survival
The inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are important regulators of cell death and inflammation. The cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) contains three Baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domains, a Ubiquitin associated (UBA) domain, and...  Read full blog post.

TLR4 - A Guardian of Innate Immunity
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) belongs to the family of Toll-like receptors (TLR), and plays a main role in pathogen recognition and innate immunity system activation. The TLR family members are highly conserved proteins that all contain a high degree of...  Read full blog post.

IRAK4: The "master IRAK" critical for initiating immune responses
IRAK4, also known as Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4, is a serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays a critical role in initiating innate and adaptive immune responses against foreign pathogens. It activates NF-kappaB in both Toll-like rec...  Read full blog post.

Showing 1-10 of 11 blog posts - Show all blog posts.
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Bioinformatics

Gene Symbol TLR4