CD31 (PECAM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein member of the immunoglobulin supergene family of adhesion molecules. CD31 is expressed by stem cells of the hematopoietic system and is primarily used to identify and concentrate these cells for experimental studies as well as for bone marrow transplantation. Anti-CD31 has shown to be highly specific and sensitive for vascular endothelial cells. Staining of nonvascular tumors (excluding hematopoietic neoplasms) is rare. CD31 MAb reacts with normal, benign, and malignant endothelial cells which make up blood vessel lining. The level of CD31 expression can help to determine the degree of tumor angiogenesis, and a high level of CD31 expression may imply a rapidly growing tumor and potentially a predictor of tumor recurrence.
Protein A or G purified
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Human Chromosome Location: 17q23.3 Mol. Weight of Antigen: ~100kDa (endothelium) and ~130kDa (platelets) Western blot note: The CD31 (PECAM-1) antibody recognizes CD31 as an ~100 kDa band in endothelium and an ~130 kDa band in platelets (Parums, 1990). Immunohistology (Formalin-fixed) (1-2ug/ml for 30 minutes at RT) (Staining of formalin-fixed tissues requires boiling tissue sections in 10mM Tris with 1mM EDTA, pH 9.0, for 10-20 min followed by cooling at RT for 20 minutes) Immunohistochemistry-Frozen and Western Blot applications reported in literature.
CD31 (PECAM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein member of the immunoglobulin supergene family of adhesion molecules, and plays key roles in leukocyte migration, angiogenesis, and integrin activation. CD31 is expressed on endothelial and hematopoeitic (platelets, monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes, T and B lymphocytes, dendritic, bone marrow stem and adult) cells. The CD31 antibody stains these various cell types to various degrees (Parvens, 1990; Govender, 1997). The CD31 antibody (clone C31.3 or PECAM-1) is widely used as a pan-endothelial cell marker to demonstrate the presence of endothelial cells in tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. The CD31 (PECAM-1) antibody reacts with normal, benign, and malignant endothelium and has a number of practical applications including marking vessels and assessing tumor microvessel density (Giatromanolaki, 2012). Since malignant endothelium retains CD31 expression, the CD31 antibody is commonly used in antibody panels to determine or confirm tissue origin of a given tumor (Gratzinger, 2009). This can be particularly useful as it can otherwise be difficult to distinguish endothelial from other cell types in routine tissue sections solely by morphological features. Endothelial cells make up blood vessel lining, and angiogenesis refers to the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels. Pathological angiogenesis is associated with tumor growth and metastasis, and the CD31 antibody is useful for helping to confirm (CD31 / PECAM-1 antibody positive) or exclude (CD31 / PECAM-1 antibody negative) neoplastic angioinvasion (Jernman, 2012). The level of CD31 expression can help to determine the degree of tumor angiogenesis, and a high level of CD31 (PECAM-1) antibody staining may imply a rapidly growing tumor and potentially a predictor of tumor recurrence.
This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt.