Stimulator of interferon genes (STING), also known as TMEM173, promotes the production of the interferon’s IFN-alpha and IFN-beta. STING possesses three functional domains: a cytoplasmic C-terminal tail, a central globular domain, and four N-terminal transmembrane motifs that attach it to the ER. The role of STING in the immune response is specific to its ability to sense nucleic acids, particularly dsDNA.
TRIF, also known as toll like receptor adaptor molecule 1 or TICAM1, is known for its role in invading foreign pathogens as part of our innate immune response. TRIF/TICAM1 is a TIR-domain adaptor protein (toll/interleukin-1 receptor) that interacts with the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) through intracellular signaling and recognition of its TIR site.
MHC molecules (also known as major histocompatibility complex molecules) assist in the presentation of antigens to T cells in order to eradicate foreign pathogens. These molecules are highly polymorphic, meaning that they exist in multiple variants in order to avoid pathogens evading their activation of the immune response. MHC Class I molecules in particular deliver cytosolic peptides to the cell surface so that they can continue on through the cytosol and ultimately the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
Toll like receptors (TLRs) are highly conserved proteins that are first known for their role in pathogen recognition and immune response activation. In order to elicit the necessary immune response in reaction to a foreign pathogen, TLRs trigger cytokine production depending on the behavior patterns of the pathogen itself. Specifically, TLR4 acts through bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which composes the outer wall of Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial LPS is also a potent activator of the immune system.
IRAK4, also known as Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4, is a serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays a critical role in initiating innate and adaptive immune responses against foreign pathogens. It activates NF-kappaB in both Toll-like receptor (TLR) and T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways.
TLR1 belongs to the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, and is a key player in the recognition of pathogens as well as the activation of the innate immunity system. TLRs are highly conserved proteins with a high degree of structural and functional homology from Drosophila to humans. By recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are exhibited across a spectrum of ligands, including infectious agents, TLRs modulate cellular cytokine production needed for efficient innate immunity development.