The NLRP3 Inflammasome: Macrophage Activator & Pathology Driver

Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) expression and function in endothelial cells

Toll-like receptor 2 activation contributes to oral squamous cell carcinoma development and miRNA-mediated drug resistance

Toll-like receptors in the intestinal epithelial cells

The role of STING/TMEM173 in gamma and encephalitis Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

Stimulator of interferon genes (STING), also known as TMEM173, promotes the production of the interferon’s IFN-alpha and IFN-beta.  STING possesses three functional domains: a cytoplasmic C-terminal tail, a central globular domain, and four N-terminal transmembrane motifs that attach it to the ER.  The role of STING in the immune response is specific to its ability to sense nucleic acids, particularly dsDNA.

TRIF/TICAM1 and mitochondrial dynamics in the innate immune response

TRIF, also known as toll like receptor adaptor molecule 1 or TICAM1, is known for its role in invading foreign pathogens as part of our innate immune response. TRIF/TICAM1 is a TIR-domain adaptor protein (toll/interleukin-1 receptor) that interacts with the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) through intracellular signaling and recognition of its TIR site.

MHC Class I and the Herpes Simplex Virus

MHC molecules (also known as major histocompatibility complex molecules) assist in the presentation of antigens to T cells in order to eradicate foreign pathogens.  These molecules are highly polymorphic, meaning that they exist in multiple variants in order to avoid pathogens evading their activation of the immune response.  MHC Class I molecules in particular deliver cytosolic peptides to the cell surface so that they can continue on through the cytosol and ultimately the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).

The role of TLR4 in breast cancer

Toll like receptors (TLRs) are highly conserved proteins that are first known for their role in pathogen recognition and immune response activation.  In order to elicit the necessary immune response in reaction to a foreign pathogen, TLRs trigger cytokine production depending on the behavior patterns of the pathogen itself.  Specifically, TLR4 acts through bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which composes the outer wall of Gram-negative bacteria.  Bacterial LPS is also a potent activator of the immune system.

TLR2 - I can recognize many foreign pathogens!

TLR2 is a member of the broad family of Toll-like receptors (TLR) that play an important role in pathogen recognition and innate immunity.

IRAK4: The "master IRAK" critical for initiating immune responses

IRAK4, also known as Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4, is a serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays a critical role in initiating innate and adaptive immune responses against foreign pathogens. It activates NF-kappaB in both Toll-like receptor (TLR) and T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways.