Stimulator of interferon genes (STING), also known as TMEM173, promotes the production of the interferon’s IFN-alpha and IFN-beta. STING possesses three functional domains: a cytoplasmic C-terminal tail, a central globular domain, and four N-terminal transmembrane motifs that attach it to the ER. The role of STING in the immune response is specific to its ability to sense nucleic acids, particularly dsDNA.
TLR1 belongs to the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, and is a key player in the recognition of pathogens as well as the activation of the innate immunity system. TLRs are highly conserved proteins with a high degree of structural and functional homology from Drosophila to humans. By recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are exhibited across a spectrum of ligands, including infectious agents, TLRs modulate cellular cytokine production needed for efficient innate immunity development.