The role of STING/TMEM173 in gamma and encephalitis Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

Stimulator of interferon genes (STING), also known as TMEM173, promotes the production of the interferon’s IFN-alpha and IFN-beta.  STING possesses three functional domains: a cytoplasmic C-terminal tail, a central globular domain, and four N-terminal transmembrane motifs that attach it to the ER.  The role of STING in the immune response is specific to its ability to sense nucleic acids, particularly dsDNA.

The role of MHC Class II RT1B and immune response post brain injury

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is responsible for binding peptide fragments arising from pathogens in order to display them on the cell surface for recognition from immune cells.  Once recognized, the foreign pathogen is typically evaded. The MHC complex is broken into two categories, MHC Class I proteins and MHC Class II proteins.  MHC complex I and II proteins are all very different and contain specific molecules to bind different peptides – in fact, they have been described as the most polymorphic genes there are.

Topics in CD11b: The innate immune response

Integrins are transmembrane receptors composed of alpha and beta chains, where beta-integrins are mainly expressed in leukocytes. Leukocytes are white blood cells that act in the immune system to defend our body against foreign pathogens.

The effects of curcumin on IKB Alpha and the NFkB signaling pathway

The IKK complex, or inhibitor of NFkB kinase, is composed of IKK alpha and IKK beta.  These kinases are at the core of the NFkB signaling cascade.  The NFkB family is made up of transcription factors that are kept inactive in the cytoplasm through inhibitory IkB proteins.

Using a STAT3 antibody in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an important oncogenic transcriptional factor that mediates tumor induced immune suppression.  Specifically, STAT3 transmits signals from cytokines and growth factor receptors in the plasma membrane (PM) to the nucleus, where they alter gene transcription.  Because of this transcriptional regulatory role, STAT3 also plays a part in regulating transcription of many critical genes that are involved in apoptosis, cell differentiation, immune response, tumor formation and more.  Using a

The effect of antioxidants and the NFkB p65 pathway in inflammation

NFkB is a transcription factor that plays a role in the expression of genes involved in immune response, inflammation, metastasis, cell survival and more. RelA (p65) is one member of the NFkB mammalian family, alongside other subunits.

Niemann Pick-C1 and cholesterol dynamics

Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) mediates low-density cholesterol transport from late endosomes and lysosomes to other areas of the cell via receptor mediation endocytosis.  Although cholesterol moves freely inside the cell, it cannot independently export out of the lysosome, which is where NPC1 steps in.

The affects of Perilipin 2 on diet and metabolism

Perilipin 2 belongs to the Perilipin family, which consists of proteins that coat intracellular lipid storage droplets. Perilipin 2 in particular is involved in lipid globule surface membrane composition, and has also been implicated in the development and maintenance of adipose tissue. Contrary to previous findings, Perilipin 2 is found in a variety of cells aside from adipocytes, ranging from fibroblasts to skin cells.

The role of TLR4 in breast cancer

Toll like receptors (TLRs) are highly conserved proteins that are first known for their role in pathogen recognition and immune response activation.  In order to elicit the necessary immune response in reaction to a foreign pathogen, TLRs trigger cytokine production depending on the behavior patterns of the pathogen itself.  Specifically, TLR4 acts through bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which composes the outer wall of Gram-negative bacteria.  Bacterial LPS is also a potent activator of the immune system.

The diverse functions of RANKL/TRANCE/TNFSF11

RANKL (also known as TNF-related activation-induced cytokine), or receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, was first discovered as a key player in the RANKL/RANK/OPG osteoclast formation pathway.