TLR9

Toll-like receptors in the intestinal epithelial cells

Topics in CD11b: The innate immune response

Integrins are transmembrane receptors composed of alpha and beta chains, where beta-integrins are mainly expressed in leukocytes. Leukocytes are white blood cells that act in the immune system to defend our body against foreign pathogens.

MHC Class I and the Herpes Simplex Virus

MHC molecules (also known as major histocompatibility complex molecules) assist in the presentation of antigens to T cells in order to eradicate foreign pathogens.  These molecules are highly polymorphic, meaning that they exist in multiple variants in order to avoid pathogens evading their activation of the immune response.  MHC Class I molecules in particular deliver cytosolic peptides to the cell surface so that they can continue on through the cytosol and ultimately the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).

The role of TLR4 in breast cancer

Toll like receptors (TLRs) are highly conserved proteins that are first known for their role in pathogen recognition and immune response activation.  In order to elicit the necessary immune response in reaction to a foreign pathogen, TLRs trigger cytokine production depending on the behavior patterns of the pathogen itself.  Specifically, TLR4 acts through bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which composes the outer wall of Gram-negative bacteria.  Bacterial LPS is also a potent activator of the immune system.

IRAK4: The "master IRAK" critical for initiating immune responses

IRAK4, also known as Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4, is a serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays a critical role in initiating innate and adaptive immune responses against foreign pathogens. It activates NF-kappaB in both Toll-like receptor (TLR) and T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways.

TLR9: For Whom the Cell Tolls

The Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) protein, also known as CD289, belongs to the family of Toll-like receptor (TLR) proteins which play a large role in pathogen recognition and the activation of innate immunity. Scientists using TLR9 antibodies have found that TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans, with a high degree of structural and functional homology1,2.

TLR9: Tollgate to Immunity

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in the activation of innate immunity, and TLRs are expressed in a large number of immune cells as well as in epithelial cells. TLR9 recognizes synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated deoxycytidyl-deoxyguanosine (CpG) motifs and mimics the immunostimulatory activity of bacterial DNA.

TLR9, Infectious Disease and Cancer

Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a protein encoded by TLR9 gene in humans. It is also known as cluster of differentiation 289 (CD289) and is a member of TLR family.

TLR9 Antibodies in Immunity Research

Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a member of the toll-like receptor family that plays a key role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. Scientists using TLR9 antibodies have found the protein is highly conserved from Drosophila to humans, with a high degree of structural and functional homology (1,2).