RANKL is the ligand for the receptor activator of NFkB (RANK) that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. RANK overexpression induces the NFkB and c-Jun-terminal kinase (JNK) downstream pathways. This pathway has been studied in detail in the bone remodeling system with regards to osteoclast activity and induction.
MyD88, also called myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, encodes a cytosolic adapter protein that plays an essential role in innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune system recognizes the presence of bacterial pathogens through the expression of a family known as Toll-like receptors (TLRs).