Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) expression and function in endothelial cells

The role of STING/TMEM173 in gamma and encephalitis Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

Stimulator of interferon genes (STING), also known as TMEM173, promotes the production of the interferon’s IFN-alpha and IFN-beta.  STING possesses three functional domains: a cytoplasmic C-terminal tail, a central globular domain, and four N-terminal transmembrane motifs that attach it to the ER.  The role of STING in the immune response is specific to its ability to sense nucleic acids, particularly dsDNA.

TRIF/TICAM1 and mitochondrial dynamics in the innate immune response

TRIF, also known as toll like receptor adaptor molecule 1 or TICAM1, is known for its role in invading foreign pathogens as part of our innate immune response. TRIF/TICAM1 is a TIR-domain adaptor protein (toll/interleukin-1 receptor) that interacts with the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) through intracellular signaling and recognition of its TIR site.

The role of TLR4 in breast cancer

Toll like receptors (TLRs) are highly conserved proteins that are first known for their role in pathogen recognition and immune response activation.  In order to elicit the necessary immune response in reaction to a foreign pathogen, TLRs trigger cytokine production depending on the behavior patterns of the pathogen itself.  Specifically, TLR4 acts through bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which composes the outer wall of Gram-negative bacteria.  Bacterial LPS is also a potent activator of the immune system.