Traumatic brain injury (TBI) currently contributes to nearly 30% of all injury deaths in the United States. Characterized by an abrasive head injury that interrupts normal brain function, TBI can range from mild to severe. Mild symptoms can present themselves as excessive tiredness, difficulty concentrating and lack of clear thinking. Severe cases of TBI are hallmarked by unusual behavior, seizures and loss of consciousness. Research has shown that on a molecular level TBI triggers various mechanisms of cell death alongside attempted tissue recovery, therefore Choi et al sought
HIF-2 alpha, also known as hypoxia-inducible factor 2, endothelial PAS domain protein-1, and member of PAS superfamily 2 is part of the HIF family of proteins. The HIF family is composed of HIF-1, HIF-2 and HIF-3, where HIF-2 is a dimeric protein that consists of an alpha and beta subunit.HIF-2 alphais activated in the presence of oxygen deprivation, or hypoxia, via prolyl hydroxylase-domain enzymes (PHD
GFP, or green fluorescent protein, is a chemiluminescent protein derived from Aequorea jellyfish that was first discovered by Osamu Shimomura. It was soon after established that the emission spectra of GFP was right around 509nm, or the ultraviolet color range. The GFP gene is often used to form expression constructs in order to closely follow protein behavior, cellular differentiation, protein localization and more. The following articles employed a GFP antibody in conjunction with various other GFP construct techniques to strengthe
VEGF is homodimeric, disulfide-linked glycoprotein cytokine that serves as the ligand for FLT1 (VEGFR-1 receptor) and FLK1 (VEGFR-2 receptor) tyrosine kinases. It is a key modulator of physiological angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and endothelial cell growth during basic developmental processes such as embryogenesis, skeletal growth, and reproductive functions.
The myeloid differentiation protein MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response protein) was originally identified and characterized as a primary upregulated response gene in interleukin-6 mediated myeloid differentiation.