Toll-like receptors in the intestinal epithelial cells

The effects of curcumin on IKB Alpha and the NFkB signaling pathway

The IKK complex, or inhibitor of NFkB kinase, is composed of IKK alpha and IKK beta.  These kinases are at the core of the NFkB signaling cascade.  The NFkB family is made up of transcription factors that are kept inactive in the cytoplasm through inhibitory IkB proteins.

iNOS: The Nitric Oxide Boss

Nitric oxide (NO) is an inorganic, gaseous, and reactive free radical that acts as a biologic mediator in processes such as neurotransmission, vasorelaxation, and cytotoxicity. In addition, it has antimicrobial and anti-tumoral activities. NO production is mediated by members of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family. The NOS enzyme catalyzes the oxidization of L-arginine into L-citrulline and NO.  Several subtypes have been identified: two constitutive isoforms (type I brain/neuronal NOS, and type III endothelial) and one inducible isoform (iNOS, or type II).