Recombinant Human Tyrosine Hydroxylase His Protein

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Western Blot: Recombinant Human Tyrosine Hydroxylase His Protein [NBP1-42461] - Novus Biologicals antibody NB300-109 was used to detect the protein on a Western blot. 150 ng of protein were added to the Western blot.
SDS-Page: Recombinant Human Tyrosine Hydroxylase His Protein [NBP1-42461] - This product has a purity >95%. This protein was run on a 4-20% SDS-PAGE gel with 5 ug protein loaded.

Product Details

Summary
Reactivity HuSpecies Glossary
Applications WB, IHC, IHC-P, PAGE
Concentration
0.5 mg/ml

Order Details

Recombinant Human Tyrosine Hydroxylase His Protein Summary

Description
Recombinant Tyrosine Hydroxylase protein with an N-terminal His tag and corresponding to amino acids 1 - 497.

Source: E. coli

(Accession #: P07101-2)

Source
E. coli
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Protein
Gene
TH
Purity
>90%, by SDS-PAGE

Applications/Dilutions

Application Notes
This Tyrosine Hydroxylase protein is useful as a positive control for Western blotting. This protein has been tested using NB300-109 for detection on a Western blot. Use in Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin reported in scientific literature (PMID 24092694).
Theoretical MW
60 kDa.
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
Publications
Read Publications using NBP1-42461.

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Storage
Store at -80C. Avoid freeze-thaw cycles.
Buffer
300 mM NaCl, 2.7 mM KCl, 4.3 mM Na2HPO4, 1.47 mM KH2PO4, 5% glycerol, 1 mM DTT, pH 7.4
Preservative
N/A
Concentration
0.5 mg/ml
Purity
>90%, by SDS-PAGE

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human Tyrosine Hydroxylase His Protein

  • DYT14
  • DYT5b
  • EC 1.14.16
  • EC 1.14.16.2
  • TH
  • TYH dystonia 14
  • TYH
  • Tyrosine 3-hydroxylase
  • tyrosine 3-monooxygenase
  • Tyrosine Hydroxylase

Background

The tetrameric enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), also designated as tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (TY3H), is the rate-limiting enzyme for catecholamine biosynthesis and has a theoretical molecular weight of 60 kDa. Encoded by the TH gene, TH catalyzes the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-3,4- dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) in the central nervous system and adrenal medulla. The precursor of catecholamines, L-dopa, is converted to dopamine for use in the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) (1). Dysfunction in the TH gene, and thus the enzymatic activity by TH, dysregulates catecholamine synthesis.

Two transcription factor binding sites in the proximal region of the TH gene, the TPA-responsive element (TRE) and the c-AMP responsive element (CRE), have been implicated in the complex regulation of the TH gene. Dysregulation of breakdown for the amino acid, tyrosine, by TH is a result of a genetic disorder that results in Tyrosinemia (high levels of tyrosine in the blood, tissue and organs).

Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency is a disorder that primarily affects movement, where individuals display symptoms that include lack of coordination when walking, postural tremors and unusual body positioning. TH deficient dopamine-responsive dystonia (DRD), also known as Segawa syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder that is associated with low levels of TH and is diagnosed during childhood with characteristic symptoms including increased muscle tone (dystonia) and signs of Parkinsonism like bradykinesia, tremors, rigidity and postural instability (2). Correspondingly, TH is also linked to Parkinson's disease in older adults, where low dopamine levels are a consistent neurochemical abnormality. Functional polymorphisms of the TH gene may be involved in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and other affective disorders where dopamine is often dysregulated (3).

References

1. Hamanaka, Y., & Mizunami, M. (2019). Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the mushroom body of the field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. Cell Tissue Res, 376(1), 97-111. doi:10.1007/s00441-018-2969-9

2. Li, L., & Zhou, F. M. (2013). Parallel dopamine D1 receptor activity dependence of l-Dopa-induced normal movement and dyskinesia in mice. Neuroscience, 236, 66-76. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.12.065

3. Borkar, C. D., Bharne, A. P., Nagalakshmi, B., Sakharkar, A. J., Subhedar, N. K., & Kokare, D. M. (2018). Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript Peptide (CART) Alleviates MK-801-Induced Schizophrenic Dementia-Like Symptoms. Neuroscience, 375, 94-107. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2018.01.056

Limitations

This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Peptides and proteins are guaranteed for 3 months from date of receipt.

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Publications for Tyrosine Hydroxylase Recombinant Protein (NBP1-42461)(2)

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Blogs on Tyrosine Hydroxylase.

The identification of dopaminergic neurons using Tyrosine Hydroxylase in Parkinson's research and LRRK2
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is a crucial enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine in the brain.  Specifically, TH catalyzes the conversion of l-tyrosine to l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa).  The importance of t...  Read full blog post.

Tyrosine hydroxylase - a marker for dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system
Tyrosine hydroxylase is a member of the aromatic amino acid hydroxylase (AAAH) family.  It is expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), which can be, thr...  Read full blog post.

Tyrosine Hydroxylase - rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis
Catecholamines are tyrosine-derived hormones that are produced in the adrenal gland. They include epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine and are used as neurotransmitters by the central and peripheral nervous system. The rate limiting enzyme in...  Read full blog post.

A Big Guy for the Catecholamine Synthesis - Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)
In the synthesis pathway for the catecholamines - dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme. Through alternative mRNA splicing, a wide molecular diversity of TH isoforms are generated that are tissue-s...  Read full blog post.

Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiencies and Neurodegeneration
Tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis pathway of the catecholamines dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Alternative mRNA splicing generates a wide molecular diversity of TH isoforms that are tissue specific and produ...  Read full blog post.

Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency and Brain Disorders
 Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. A hallmark of Parkinson's disease is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Mutations in cas...  Read full blog post.

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Bioinformatics

Gene Symbol TH