Tyrosine Hydroxylase Products

Antibodies
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody ...
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody
Species: Hu, Mu, Rt, Dr, I, Ma
Applications: WB, Simple Western, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, Dual ISH-IHC, IHC-FrFl, IHC-WhMt, KO
Host: Rabbit Polyclonal
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody ...
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody
NB300-110
Species: Hu, Mu, Rt, Am, Av, Ma, Rb, Re
Applications: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, IHC-FrFl, Single-Cell Western
Host: Sheep Polyclonal
Tyrosine Hydroxylase [p Ser40 ...
Tyrosine Hydroxylase [p Ser40] Ant...
NB300-173
Species: Mu, Rt, Ma
Applications: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr
Host: Rabbit Polyclonal
Lysates
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Overexpr ...
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Overexpressio...
NBP2-11149
Species: Hu
Applications: WB
Proteins
Recombinant Human Tyrosine Hy ...
Recombinant Human Tyrosine Hydroxy...
NBP1-42461
Species: Hu
Applications: WB, IHC, IHC-P, PAGE
Recombinant Mouse Tyrosine Hy ...
Recombinant Mouse Tyrosine Hydroxy...
NBP2-52633
Species: Mu
Applications: PAGE
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Recombin ...
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Recombinant P...
NBP2-46647PEP
Species: Hu
Applications: AC

Description

The tetrameric enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), also designated as tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (TY3H), is the rate-limiting enzyme for catecholamine biosynthesis and has a theoretical molecular weight of 60 kDa. Encoded by the TH gene, TH catalyzes the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-3,4- dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) in the central nervous system and adrenal medulla. The precursor of catecholamines, L-dopa, is converted to dopamine for use in the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) (1). Dysfunction in the TH gene, and thus the enzymatic activity by TH, dysregulates catecholamine synthesis.

Two transcription factor binding sites in the proximal region of the TH gene, the TPA-responsive element (TRE) and the c-AMP responsive element (CRE), have been implicated in the complex regulation of the TH gene. Dysregulation of breakdown for the amino acid, tyrosine, by TH is a result of a genetic disorder that results in Tyrosinemia (high levels of tyrosine in the blood, tissue and organs).

Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency is a disorder that primarily affects movement, where individuals display symptoms that include lack of coordination when walking, postural tremors and unusual body positioning. TH deficient dopamine-responsive dystonia (DRD), also known as Segawa syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder that is associated with low levels of TH and is diagnosed during childhood with characteristic symptoms including increased muscle tone (dystonia) and signs of Parkinsonism like bradykinesia, tremors, rigidity and postural instability (2). Correspondingly, TH is also linked to Parkinson's disease in older adults, where low dopamine levels are a consistent neurochemical abnormality. Functional polymorphisms of the TH gene may be involved in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and other affective disorders where dopamine is often dysregulated (3).

References

1. Hamanaka, Y., & Mizunami, M. (2019). Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the mushroom body of the field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. Cell Tissue Res, 376(1), 97-111. doi:10.1007/s00441-018-2969-9

2. Li, L., & Zhou, F. M. (2013). Parallel dopamine D1 receptor activity dependence of l-Dopa-induced normal movement and dyskinesia in mice. Neuroscience, 236, 66-76. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.12.065

3. Borkar, C. D., Bharne, A. P., Nagalakshmi, B., Sakharkar, A. J., Subhedar, N. K., & Kokare, D. M. (2018). Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript Peptide (CART) Alleviates MK-801-Induced Schizophrenic Dementia-Like Symptoms. Neuroscience, 375, 94-107. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2018.01.056

Bioinformatics

Entrez Human
Mouse
Rat
Uniprot Human
Human
Human
Human
Mouse
Rat
Product By Gene ID 7054
Alternate Names
  • TYH dystonia 14
  • TH
  • EC 1.14.16.2
  • EC 1.14.16
  • Tyrosine 3-hydroxylase
  • tyrosine 3-monooxygenase
  • DYT5b
  • DYT14
  • tyrosine hydroxylase

Research Areas for Tyrosine Hydroxylase

Find related products by research area and learn more about each of the different research areas below.

Lipid and Metabolism
Neuronal Cell Markers
Neuroscience
Neurotransmission
Phospho-Specific
Prostate Cancer
Tyrosine Kinases

Bioinformatics Tool for Tyrosine Hydroxylase

Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to Tyrosine Hydroxylase. Need help? Read the Bioinformatics Tool Guide for instructions on using this tool.
 
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Related Tyrosine Hydroxylase Blog Posts

Check out the latest blog posts on Tyrosine Hydroxylase.
The identification of dopaminergic neurons using Tyrosine Hydroxylase in Parkinson's research and LRRK2
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is a crucial enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine in the brain.  Specifically, TH catalyzes the conversion of l-tyrosine to l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa).  The importance of t...    Read more.
Tyrosine hydroxylase - a marker for dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system
Tyrosine hydroxylase is a member of the aromatic amino acid hydroxylase (AAAH) family.  It is expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), which can be, thr...    Read more.
Tyrosine Hydroxylase - rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis
Catecholamines are tyrosine-derived hormones that are produced in the adrenal gland. They include epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine and are used as neurotransmitters by the central and peripheral nervous system. The rate limiting enzyme in...    Read more.
A Big Guy for the Catecholamine Synthesis - Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)
In the synthesis pathway for the catecholamines - dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme. Through alternative mRNA splicing, a wide molecular diversity of TH isoforms are generated that are tissue-s...    Read more.
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiencies and Neurodegeneration
Tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis pathway of the catecholamines dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Alternative mRNA splicing generates a wide molecular diversity of TH isoforms that are tissue specific and produ...    Read more.
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency and Brain Disorders
 Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. A hallmark of Parkinson's disease is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Mutations in cas...    Read more.
Read more Tyrosine Hydroxylase related blogs.