Tyrosine Hydroxylase Products

Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody ...
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody
Species: Hu, Mu, Rt, Ch, Dr, I, Ma
Applications: WB, Simple Western, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, Dual ISH-IHC, IHC-FrFl, IHC-WhMt, KO
Host: Rabbit Polyclonal
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody ...
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody
Species: Hu, Mu, Rt, Am, Av, Ma, Rb, Re
Applications: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, IHC-FrFl, Single-Cell Western
Host: Sheep Polyclonal
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody ...
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody (779...
Species: Hu, Mu
Applications: WB, Simple Western, IHC, ICC/IF
Host: Mouse Monoclonal
Formulation Catalog # Availability Price  
Human Tyrosine Hydroxylase EL ...
Human Tyrosine Hydroxylase ELISA K...
Species: Hu
Applications: ELISA, S-ELISA
Rat Tyrosine Hydroxylase ELIS ...
Rat Tyrosine Hydroxylase ELISA Kit...
Species: Rt
Applications: ELISA, S-ELISA
Mouse Tyrosine Hydroxylase EL ...
Mouse Tyrosine Hydroxylase ELISA K...
Species: Mu
Applications: ELISA, S-ELISA
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Overexpr ...
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Overexpressio...
Species: Hu
Applications: WB
Recombinant Human Tyrosine Hy ...
Recombinant Human Tyrosine Hydroxy...
Species: Hu
Applications: WB, IHC, IHC-P, PAGE
Recombinant Mouse Tyrosine Hy ...
Recombinant Mouse Tyrosine Hydroxy...
Species: Mu
Applications: PAGE
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Recombin ...
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Recombinant P...
Species: Hu
Applications: AC


The tetrameric enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), also designated as tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (TY3H), is the rate-limiting enzyme for catecholamine biosynthesis and has a theoretical molecular weight of 60 kDa. Encoded by the TH gene, TH catalyzes the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-3,4- dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) in the central nervous system and adrenal medulla. The precursor of catecholamines, L-dopa, is converted to dopamine for use in the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) (1) . Dysfunction in the TH gene, and thus the enzymatic activity by TH, dysregulates catecholamine synthesis.

Two transcription factor binding sites in the proximal region of the TH gene, the TPA-responsive element (TRE) and the c-AMP responsive element (CRE), have been implicated in the complex regulation of the TH gene. Dysregulation of breakdown for the amino acid, tyrosine, by TH is a result of a genetic disorder that results in Tyrosinemia (high levels of tyrosine in the blood, tissue and organs).

Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency is a disorder that primarily affects movement, where individuals display symptoms that include lack of coordination when walking, postural tremors and unusual body positioning. TH deficient dopamine-responsive dystonia (DRD), also known as Segawa syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder that is associated with low levels of TH and is diagnosed during childhood with characteristic symptoms including increased muscle tone (dystonia) and signs of Parkinsonism like bradykinesia, tremors, rigidity and postural instability (2). Correspondingly, TH is also linked to Parkinson's disease in older adults, where low dopamine levels are a consistent neurochemical abnormality. Functional polymorphisms of the TH gene may be involved in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and other affective disorders where dopamine is often dysregulated (3).


1. Hamanaka, Y., & Mizunami, M. (2019). Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the mushroom body of the field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. Cell Tissue Res, 376(1), 97-111. doi:10.1007/s00441-018-2969-9

2. Li, L., & Zhou, F. M. (2013). Parallel dopamine D1 receptor activity dependence of l-Dopa-induced normal movement and dyskinesia in mice. Neuroscience, 236, 66-76. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.12.065

3. Borkar, C. D., Bharne, A. P., Nagalakshmi, B., Sakharkar, A. J., Subhedar, N. K., & Kokare, D. M. (2018). Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript Peptide (CART) Alleviates MK-801-Induced Schizophrenic Dementia-Like Symptoms. Neuroscience, 375, 94-107. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2018.01.056


Entrez Mouse
Uniprot Human
Product By Gene ID 7054
Alternate Names
  • DYT14
  • DYT5b
  • EC 1.14.16
  • EC
  • TH
  • TYH dystonia 14
  • Tyrosine 3-hydroxylase
  • tyrosine 3-monooxygenase
  • tyrosine hydroxylase

Research Areas for Tyrosine Hydroxylase

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Lipid and Metabolism
Neuronal Cell Markers
Prostate Cancer
Tyrosine Kinases

Bioinformatics Tool for Tyrosine Hydroxylase

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Related Tyrosine Hydroxylase Blog Posts

Check out the latest blog posts on Tyrosine Hydroxylase.
Tyrosine hydroxylase - a marker for dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system
Tyrosine hydroxylase is a member of the aromatic amino acid hydroxylase (AAAH) family.  It is expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), which can be, thr...    Read more.
The identification of dopaminergic neurons using Tyrosine Hydroxylase in Parkinson's research and LRRK2
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is a crucial enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine in the brain.  Specifically, TH catalyzes the conversion of l-tyrosine to l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa).  The importance of t...    Read more.
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency and Brain Disorders
 Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. A hallmark of Parkinson's disease is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Mutations in cas...    Read more.
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiencies and Neurodegeneration
Tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis pathway of the catecholamines dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Alternative mRNA splicing generates a wide molecular diversity of TH isoforms that are tissue specific and produ...    Read more.
A Big Guy for the Catecholamine Synthesis - Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)
In the synthesis pathway for the catecholamines - dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme. Through alternative mRNA splicing, a wide molecular diversity of TH isoforms are generated that are tissue-s...    Read more.
Successful Transplantation of Friedreich Ataxia Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC)-Derived Sensory Neurons in Dorsal Root Ganglia of Adult Rodents
Jamshed Arslan, Pharm D, PhD The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are a collection of cell bodies of sensory nerves carrying sensory information – including nociception, mechanoreception and proprioception – from periphera...    Read more.
Tyrosine Hydroxylase - rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis
Catecholamines are tyrosine-derived hormones that are produced in the adrenal gland. They include epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine and are used as neurotransmitters by the central and peripheral nervous system. The rate limiting enzyme in ...    Read more.
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