Recombinant Human MIS/AMH Protein

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Product Details

Summary
Reactivity HuSpecies Glossary
Applications Binding Activity, Bioactivity

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Recombinant Human MIS/AMH Protein Summary

Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to inhibit growth of OVCAR‑3 human ovarian carcinoma cells. Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA. Immobilized rhMIS at 3 µg/mL (100 µL/well) will bind rrMIS RII/Fc Chimera with a linear range of 1.6-100 ng/mL.
Source
E. coli-derived human MIS/AMH protein
Ala453-Arg560
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Ala453
Structure / Form
Disulfide-linked homodimer
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
Gene
AMH
Purity
>97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Note
<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.

Applications/Dilutions

Theoretical MW
11.7 kDa (monomer).
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
Publications
Read Publications using
1737-MS in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Buffer
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
Purity
>97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.

Notes

This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human MIS/AMH Protein

  • AMH
  • MIF
  • MIS
  • Muellerian hormone
  • muellerian-inhibiting factor
  • muellerian-inhibiting substance
  • Mullerian hormone
  • Mullerian inhibiting factor
  • Mullerian inhibiting substance

Background

Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS), also named anti‑Müllerian hormone (AMH), is a tissue-specific TGF-beta superfamily growth factor. Its expression is restricted to the Sertoli cells of fetal and postnatal testis, and to the granulosa cells of postnatal ovary (1). The human MIS gene encodes a 553 amino acid residue (aa) prepropeptide containing a signal a sequence (1-24), a pro‑region (25-455), and the carboxyl-terminal bioactive protein (446-553) (2‑4). MIS is synthesized and secreted as a disulfide-linked homodimeric pro‑protein. Proteolytic cleavage is required to generate the N-terminal pro‑region and the C‑terminal bioactive protein, which remain associated in a non-covalent complex. Recombinant C‑terminal MIS has been shown to be bioactive. However, the complex with the N-terminal pro‑region showed enhanced activity (3, 5). The C‑terminal region contains the seven canonical cysteine residues found in TGF-beta  superfamily members. These cysteine residues are involved in inter- and intra-molecular disulfide bonds, which forms the cysteine knot structure. Human and mouse MIS share 73% and 90% aa sequence identity in their pro‑region and C‑terminal region, respectively. MIS induces Mullerian duct (female reproductive tract) regression during sexual differentiation in the male embryo (6). Posnatally, MIS has been shown to regulate gonadal functions (1). MIS inhibits Leydig cell proliferation and is a regulator of the initial and cyclic recruitment of ovarian follicles. MIS has also been found to have anti‑proliferative effects on breast, ovarian and prostate tumor cells (7-9).

Like other TGF-beta superfamily members, MIS signals via a heteromeric receptor complex consisting of a type I and a type II receptor serine/threonine kinase. Depending on the cell context, different type I receptors (including Act RIA/ALK2, BMP RIA/ALK3, and BMP RIB/ALK6) that are shared by other TGF-beta superfamily members, have been implicated in MIS signaling (10 - 12). In contrast, the type II MIS receptor (MIS RII) is unique and does not bind other TGF-beta superfamily members. Upon ligand binding, MIS RII recruits the non-ligand binding type I receptor into the complex, resulting in phosphorylation the BMP-like signaling pathway effector proteins Smad1, Smad5 and Smad 8 (10‑12).

  1. Teixeira, et al. (2001) Endocrine Rev. 22:657.
  2. Pepinsky, R.et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263:18961.
  3. Wilson, C.A. et al. (1993) Mol. Endocrinol. 7:247.
  4. Kurian, M.S. et al. (1995) Clin. Cancer Res. 1:343.
  5. Nachtigal, J.S. and H.A. Ingraham (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 93:7711.
  6. MacLaughlin, D.T. et al. (1991) Methods Enzymol. 35:358.
  7. Laurich, V.M. et al. (2002) Endocrinology 143:3351.
  8. McGee, E.A. et al. (2001) Biol. Reprod. 64:293.
  9. Segev, D.L. et al. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99:239.
  10. Josso, N and N. diClemente (2003) Trends Endo. Met. 14:91.
  11. Clarke, T.R. et al. (2001) Mol. Endocrinol. 15:946.
  12. Visser, J.A. (2003) Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 211:65.

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1737-MS
Species: Hu
Applications: Binding Activity, Bioactivity

Publications for MIS/AMH (1737-MS)(8)

We have publications tested in 4 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Rat, Primate - Macaca nemestrina (Southern Pig-tailed Macaque).

We have publications tested in 3 applications: Bioassay, Organ Culture, Surface Plasmon Resonance.


Filter By Application
Bioassay
(6)
Organ Culture
(1)
Surface Plasmon Resonance
(1)
All Applications
Filter By Species
Human
(4)
Mouse
(2)
Rat
(1)
Primate - Macaca nemestrina (Southern Pig-tailed Macaque)
(1)
All Species
Showing Publications 1 - 8 of 8.
Publications using 1737-MS Applications Species
A Yamamoto, T Omotehara, Y Miura, T Takada, N Yoneda, T Hirano, Y Mantani, H Kitagawa, T Yokoyama, N Hoshi The mechanisms underlying the effects of AMH on M�llerian duct regression in male mice J. Vet. Med. Sci., 2018;0(0):. 2018 [PMID: 29526868] (Organ Culture, Mouse) Organ Culture Mouse
Xu J, Bishop C, Lawson M, Park B, Xu F Anti-Mullerian hormone promotes pre-antral follicle growth, but inhibits antral follicle maturation and dominant follicle selection in primates. Hum Reprod, 2016;31(7):1522-30. 2016 [PMID: 27165618] (Bioassay, Primate - Macaca nemestrina (Southern Pig-tailed Macaque)) Bioassay Primate - Macaca nemestrina (Southern Pig-tailed Macaque)
Signorile P, Petraglia F, Baldi A Anti-mullerian hormone is expressed by endometriosis tissues and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in endometriosis cells. J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2014;33(0):46. 2014 [PMID: 24886254] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Wilson TR, Fridlyand J, Yan Y, Penuel E, Burton L, Chan E, Peng J, Lin E, Wang Y, Sosman J, Ribas A, Li J, Moffat J, Sutherlin DP, Koeppen H, Merchant M, Neve R, Settleman J Widespread potential for growth-factor-driven resistance to anticancer kinase inhibitors. Nature, 2012;487(7408):505-9. 2012 [PMID: 22763448] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Castonguay R, Werner ED, Matthews RG, Presman E, Mulivor AW, Solban N, Sako D, Pearsall RS, Underwood KW, Seehra J, Kumar R, Grinberg AV Soluble Endoglin Specifically Binds Bone Morphogenetic Proteins 9 and 10 via Its Orphan Domain, Inhibits Blood Vessel Formation, and Suppresses Tumor Growth. J. Biol. Chem., 2011;286(34):30034-46. 2011 [PMID: 21737454] (Surface Plasmon Resonance, Human) Surface Plasmon Resonance Human
Nilsson EE, Schindler R, Savenkova MI, Skinner MK Inhibitory actions of Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) on ovarian primordial follicle assembly. PLoS ONE, 2011;6(5):e20087. 2011 [PMID: 21637711] (Bioassay, Rat) Bioassay Rat
Herrera B, Inman GJ, A rapid and sensitive bioassay for the simultaneous measurement of multiple bone morphogenetic proteins. Identification and quantification of BMP4, BMP6 and BMP9 in bovine and human serum. BMC Cell Biol., 2009;10(0):20. 2009 [PMID: 19298647] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
Wang J, Dicken C, Lustbader JW, Tortoriello DV Evidence for a Mullerian-inhibiting substance autocrine/paracrine system in adult human endometrium. Fertil. Steril., 2009;91(4):1195-203. 2009 [PMID: 18328480] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human

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Bioinformatics

Gene Symbol AMH
Entrez
Uniprot