Recombinant Human MD-2 Protein, CF


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Recombinant Human MD-2 Protein, CF Summary

Details of Functionality
Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA. When recombinant human TLR-4 is Immobilized at 2 µg/mL (100 µL/well), the concentration of rhMD-2 that produces 50% optimal binding response is found to be approximately 0.03-0.15 µg/mL.
E. coli-derived human MD2 protein
Met Human MD-2
(Glu17 - Asn160)
Accession # BAA78717
N-terminus C-terminus
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
>90%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
Endotoxin Note
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


  • Binding Activity
Theoretical MW
19.2 kDa (monomer).
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
Read Publications using
1787-MD/CF in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after opening.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after opening.
Supplied as a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA.
>90%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human MD-2 Protein, CF

  • ESOP1
  • ESOP-1
  • LY96
  • ly-96
  • lymphocyte antigen 96
  • MD2
  • MD-2
  • myeloid differentiation protein-2
  • Protein MD-2


MD-2, also known as lymphocyte antigen 96 and ESOP-1, is a secreted glycoprotein that shares conserved cysteine residues and significant sequence similarity (23%) with MD-1. The gene of human MD-2 encodes a 160 amino acid residue (aa) precursor protein with a 16 aa signal peptide and a 144 aa mature protein, which contains 2 N‑glycosylation sites (1). Recombinant secreted MD‑2 has been found to exist as disulfide-linked dimers and oligomers (2).

Both MD-1 and MD-2 are accessory molecules that associate with the extracellular leucine-rich repeats (LRR) of Toll-like receptor (TLR) family members, which are type I transmembrane receptors that regulate innate immune responses to microbial pathogens (3, 4). MD-1 binds to RP105 on B cells and macrophages to form the signaling receptor complex for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a constituent of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Similarly, MD-2 interacts with TLR-4 to form the heteromeric receptor that confers LPS responsiveness. MD-2 also associates with TLR-2, albeit with less avidity, to confer responsiveness to cell wall components from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. MD-1 and MD-2 are also required for the correct targeting of the TLRs to the cell surface. Although MD-2 glycosylation is not crucial for its surface expression and interaction with TLR-4, it is required for LPS binding and signaling (5).

  1. Shimazu, R. et al. (1999) J. Exp. Med. 189:1777.
  2. Visintin, A. et al. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:12156.
  3. Nagai, Y. et al. (2002) Nature Immunology 3:667.
  4. Akashi, S. et al. (2003) J. Exp. Med. 198:1035.
  5. Correia, J. and R. Ulevitch (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277:1845.

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Publications for MD-2 (1787-MD/CF)(17)

We have publications tested in 4 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Bacteria - Taiwanofungus camphoratus, N/A.

We have publications tested in 6 applications: Bioassay, ELISA (Standard), ELISA Capture, ELISA Developmet, In Vivo, SPR.

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ELISA (Standard)
ELISA Capture
ELISA Developmet
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Bacteria - Taiwanofungus camphoratus
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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 17. Show All 17 Publications.
Publications using 1787-MD/CF Applications Species
J Zhang, Y Sun, C Sun, D Shang The antimicrobial peptide LK2(6)A(L) exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by binding to the myeloid differentiation 2 domain and protects against LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice Bioorganic chemistry, 2023-01-18;132(0):106376. 2023-01-18 [PMID: 36706531] (SPR, N/A) SPR N/A
F Jung, R Staltner, A Baumann, K Burger, E Halilbasic, C Hellerbran, I Bergheim A Xanthohumol-Rich Hop Extract Diminishes Endotoxin-Induced Activation of TLR4 Signaling in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: A Study in Healthy Women International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2022-10-21;23(20):. 2022-10-21 [PMID: 36293555] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
W Zhu, NE Sahar, HMA Javaid, ES Pak, G Liang, Y Wang, H Ha, JY Huh Exercise-Induced Irisin Decreases Inflammation and Improves NAFLD by Competitive Binding with MD2 Cells, 2021-11-25;10(12):. 2021-11-25 [PMID: 34943814] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
W Luo, LB Yang, CC Qian, B Ma, GM Manjengwa, XM Miao, J Wang, CH Hu, B Jin, LX Zhang, C Zheng, G Liang, Y Wang Flavokawain B alleviates LPS-induced acute lung injury via targeting myeloid differentiation factor 2 Acta pharmacologica Sinica, 2021-11-04;0(0):. 2021-11-04 [PMID: 34737421] (SPR, Human) SPR Human
A Puck, S Künig, M Modak, L May, P Fritz, C Battin, K Radakovics, P Steinberge, BM Reipert, BA Crowe, J Stöckl The soluble cytoplasmic tail of CD45 regulates T cell activation via TLR4 signaling European Journal of Immunology, 2021-10-20;0(0):. 2021-10-20 [PMID: 34626426] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
S Sun, Z Yan, X Shui, W Qi, Y Chen, X Xu, Y Hu, W Guo, P Shang Astilbin prevents osteoarthritis development through the TLR4/MD-2 pathway J Cell Mol Med, 2020-10-16;0(0):. 2020-10-16 [PMID: 33063931] (ELISA Capture, Human) ELISA Capture Human
Y Wang, W Luo, J Han, ZA Khan, Q Fang, Y Jin, X Chen, Y Zhang, M Wang, J Qian, W Huang, H Lum, G Wu, G Liang MD2 activation by direct AGE interaction drives inflammatory diabetic cardiomyopathy Nat Commun, 2020-05-01;11(1):2148. 2020-05-01 [PMID: 32358497] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
T Chen, W Huang, J Qian, W Luo, P Shan, Y Cai, K Lin, G Wu, G Liang Macrophage-derived myeloid differentiation protein 2 plays an essential role in ox-LDL-induced inflammation and atherosclerosis EBioMedicine, 2020-03-06;53(0):102706. 2020-03-06 [PMID: 32151799] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
P Shang, Q Tang, Z Hu, S Huang, Y Hu, J Zhu, H Liu Procyanidin B3 alleviates intervertebral disc degeneration via interaction with the TLR4/MD-2 complex J. Cell. Mol. Med., 2020-02-18;0(0):. 2020-02-18 [PMID: 32068951] (ELISA (Standard)) ELISA (Standard)
T Ito, S Yamamoto, K Yamaguchi, M Sato, Y Kaneko, S Goto, Y Goto, I Narita Inorganic polyphosphate potentiates lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage inflammatory response J. Biol. Chem., 2020-02-10;0(0):. 2020-02-10 [PMID: 32041779] (Bioassay, N/A) Bioassay N/A
Show All 17 Publications.

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Gene Symbol LY96