LC3 Antibody Pack


Biological Strategies: Knockout Validated: LC3 Antibody Pack [NB910-40435] - Lysates of HeLa parental cell line and LC3B knockout HeLa cell line (KO) untreated (-) or treated (+) with 50 uM Chloroquine for 18 more
Biological Strategies: Immunohistochemistry: LC3 Antibody Pack [NB910-40435] - Rapamycin increases autophagy in brains of PDAPP mice. Representative epifluorescent (c200x) image of hippocampal CA1 in control- and more
Genetic Strategies: Knockout Validated: LC3 Antibody Pack [NB910-40435] - LC3B was detected in immersion fixed Cloroquine treated HeLa cells (left) but was not detected in LC3B knockout HeLa cells (right) using more
Biological Strategies: Western Blot: LC3 Antibody Pack [NB910-40435] - High autophagosome concentration is consumed during early immortalized human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Immortalized human more
Immunohistochemistry: LC3 Antibody Pack [NB910-40435] - Localization of LC3 by immunohistochemical method. The immunohistochemical staining shows that LC3, CRF, and HIF-1alpha have an overlapping localization in villous more
Immunohistochemistry: LC3 Antibody Pack [NB910-40435] - Brain, Cerebral Cortex, Cell Processes in Gray Matter 40x.
Immunohistochemistry: LC3 Antibody Pack [NB910-40435] - Analysis in PFA fixed NIH/3T3 cells using anti-LC3A antibody. Image from verified customer review. LC3A Antibody [NB100-2331]

Product Details

Reactivity Hu, Mu, Rt, Po, Al, Am, Av, Ba, Bv, Ca, Ch, ChHa, Fi, Gp, Ha, In, Pl, Pm, Pm, Rb, SyHa, ZeSpecies Glossary
Applications WB, Simple Western, ELISA, Flow, Func, ICC/IF, IHC, IP, NULL, PAGE, WB, ChIP, IHC, KD, KO

Order Details

LC3 Antibody Pack Summary

This pack contains 1 vial each of: NB100-2220 (0.1 mL) and NB100-2331 (0.1 mL).
For NB100-2331: A synthetic peptide made to an internal portion of the human LC3 protein sequence (between residues 25-121) [Uniprot: Q9H492].
For NB100-2220: Polyclonal LC3B Antibody was made to a synthetic peptide made to an N-terminal portion of the human LC3B protein sequence (between residues 1-100) [UniProt# Q9GZQ8].
Autophagosome Marker


  • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP)
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Immunoblotting
  • Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence
  • Immunohistochemistry Whole-Mount
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Immunohistochemistry-Frozen
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin
  • Immunoprecipitation
  • Knockdown Validated
  • Knockout Validated
  • Proximity Ligation Assay
  • SDS-Page
  • Simple Western
  • Southern Blot
  • Western Blot
Application Notes
Antibodies in this pack are validated for the following applications:

NB100-2331: Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, ELISA, Flow Cytometry, Immunoblotting, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, Immunohistochemistry Whole-Mount, Immunohistochemistry-Frozen, Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin, Immunoprecipitation, Simple Western, Southern Blot, Western Blot
NB100-2220: Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP), ELISA, Flow Cytometry, Immunoblotting, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, Immunohistochemistry-Frozen, Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin, Immunoprecipitation, Knockdown Validated, Knockout Validated, Proximity Ligation Assay, SDS-Page, Simple Western, Western Blot
Reviewed Applications
Read 3 Reviews rated 5
NB910-40435 in the following applications:

Read Publications using
NB910-40435 in the following applications:

Reactivity Notes

Antibodies in this pack are validated for use in the following species:

NB100-2331: Amphibian, Canine, Fish, Human, Mouse, Plant, Rat, Zebrafish
NB100-2220: Alligator, Avian, Bacteria, Bovine, Canine, Chicken, Chinese Hamster, Golden Syrian Hamster, Guinea Pig, Hamster, Human, Invertebrate, Monkey, Mouse, Porcine, Primate, Rabbit, Rat, Zebrafish

Fish reactivity reported in scientific literature (PMID:32818499).

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Store at 4C short term. Aliquot and store at -20C long term. Avoid freeze-thaw cycles.

Kit Components

Alternate Names for LC3 Antibody Pack

  • ATG8F
  • LC3B
  • MAP1A/1BLC3
  • map1lc3b
  • MAP1LC3B-a
  • microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta


Autophagy (macroautophagy) is a catabolic process which targets intracellular components such as proteins and organelles for degradation. Originally described as a bulk degradation process, current research supports its selective nature (1). Selective autophagy targets specific cellular components for degradation including the endoplasmic reticulum (2) (ER-phagy), mitochondria3 (mitophagy), peroxisomes (3) (pexophagy), ribosomes (4) (ribophagy) and bacteria (5) (xenophagy). Autophagy relies on a newly formed phagophore, a membrane structure which elongates, sequesters cellular content, and fuses to form a double membrane vesicle known as the autophagosome. Fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes gives rise to the autophagolysosome, where cellular components are degraded by lysosome hydrolases (1).

Autophagic flux is supported by autophagy-related proteins (Atgs) initially identified in yeast (6,7). The core autophagy machinery is comprised of 17 Atg proteins that play specific roles in autophagosome formation. Among these Atg proteins, Atg8 is not only involved in autophagosome formation but also functions in cargo selection. In mammals, several Atg8 homologues have been identified including microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha, beta and gamma - LC3A, LC3B, and LC3C (8) respectively, as well as GABA type A receptor-associated protein (GABARAP), GABARAP-Like1, and GABARAP-Like2 (9). LC3 (predicted molecular weight 14kD) is ubiquitously expressed and undergoes posttranslational processing after synthesis. First, the cysteine protease Atg4 cleaves a carboxy terminal sequence to generate the cytosolic form LC3-I. Next, E1-like (Atg7) and E2-like (Atg3) enzymes conjugate phosphatidylethanolamine to the newly exposed carboxyterminal glycine, generating LC3-II. Finally, the Atg12-Atg5-Atg16L1 complex participates in LC3 lipidation and autophagosome formation (10). LC3B-I to LC3B-II conversion correlates with autophagosome number and is considered the best marker to monitor autophagy.


1. Yu, L., Chen, Y., & Tooze, S. A. (2018). Autophagy pathway: Cellular and molecular mechanisms. Autophagy.

2. Forrester, A., De Leonibus, C., Grumati, P., Fasana, E., Piemontese, M., Staiano, L., ... Settembre, C. (2019). A selective ER-phagy exerts procollagen quality control via a Calnexin-FAM 134B complex. The EMBO Journal.

3. He, X., Zhu, Y., Zhang, Y., Geng, Y., Gong, J., Geng, J., ... Zhong, H. (2019). RNF34 functions in immunity and selective mitophagy by targeting MAVS for autophagic degradation. The EMBO Journal.

4. Mathai, B., Meijer, A., & Simonsen, A. (2017). Studying Autophagy in Zebrafish. Cells.

5. Losier, T. T., Akuma, M., McKee-Muir, O. C., LeBlond, N. D., Suk, Y., Alsaadi, R. M., ... Russell, R. C. (2019). AMPK Promotes Xenophagy through Priming of Autophagic Kinases upon Detection of Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles. Cell Reports.

6. Nakatogawa, H., Suzuki, K., Kamada, Y., & Ohsumi, Y. (2009). Dynamics and diversity in autophagy mechanisms: Lessons from yeast. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology.

7. Tsukada, M., & Ohsumi, Y. (1993). Isolation and characterization of autophagy-defective mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Letters.

8. Wild, P., McEwan, D. G., & Dikic, I. (2014). The LC3 interactome at a glance. Journal of Cell Science.

9. Igloi, G. L. (2001). Cloning, expression patterns, and chromosome localization of three human and two mouse homologues of GABAA receptor-associated protein. Genomics.

10. Glick, D., Barth, S., & Macleod, K. F. (2010). Autophagy: Cellular and molecular mechanisms. Journal of Pathology.


This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Antibody Packs are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt.

Customers Who Viewed This Item Also Viewed...

Species: Am, Ca, Fi, Hu, Mu, Pl, Rt, Ze
Applications: ChIP, ChIP, ELISA, Flow, IB, ICC/IF, IHC-WhMt, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, IP, Simple Western, SB, WB
Species: Bv, Ha, Hu, Mu, Rb, Rt
Applications: ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, IP, WB
Species: Hu, Mu, Rt
Applications: Flow, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, IP, KD, Simple Western, WB
Species: Hu, Mu, Rt
Applications: ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P, WB
Species: Hu
Applications: IHC, IHC-P, WB
Species: Hu
Applications: ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P, KD, S-ELISA, WB
Species: Hu, Mu, Rt
Applications: ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P, IP, WB
Species: Hu
Applications: CyTOF-ready, ELISA, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P, WB
Species: Ca, Hu, Pm, Mu, Rt
Applications: Flow, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P, WB
Species: Bv, Hu, Ma
Applications: ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P, IP, WB
Species: Hu, Rt
Applications: ELISA, IHC, IHC-P, NULL, WB
Species: Hu, Mu
Applications: CyTOF-ready, ICC, IHC, ICFlow, Simple Western, WB
Species: Hu, Mu, Rt
Applications: CyTOF-ready, IHC, ICFlow, Simple Western, WB
Species: Al, Bv, Dr, Fi, Gp, Hu, Mu, Po, Pm, Rt, Xp, Ze
Applications: EM, ELISA, Flow, IB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P, IP, KD, KO, PLA, RIA, Simple Western, WB
Species: Hu, Mu, Rt
Applications: IHC, IHC-P, WB
Species: Hu, Mu, Pm, Rt
Applications: ChIP, ELISA, Flow, GS, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P, IP, KD, Simple Western, WB
Species: Ca, Hu, Mu, Rt
Applications: IHC, IHC-P, IP, WB
Species: Hu, Mu, Rt
Applications: ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P, WB
Species: Hu, Mu, Rt, Po, Al, Am, Av, Ba, Bv, Ca, Ch, ChHa, Fi, Gp, Ha, In, Pl, Pm, Pm, Rb, SyHa, Ze
Applications: WB, Simple Western, ELISA, Flow, Func, ICC/IF, IHC, IP, NULL, PAGE, WB, ChIP, IHC, KD, KO

Publications for LC3 Antibody Pack (NB910-40435)(14)

We have publications tested in 4 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Rat, Fish.

We have publications tested in 3 applications: ICC/IF, IF/IHC, WB.

Filter By Application
All Applications
Filter By Species
All Species
Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 14. Show All 14 Publications.
Publications using NB910-40435 Applications Species
Wang Y, Zhao H, Nie X et al. Zinc application alleviates the adverse renal effects of arsenic stress in a protein quality control way in common carp Environ. Res. 2020-08-17 [PMID: 32818499] (WB, Fish) WB Fish
Wang SL, Shao BZ, Zhao SB et al. Intestinal autophagy links psychosocial stress with gut microbiota to promote inflammatory bowel disease Cell Death Dis [PMID: 31564717] (WB, Mouse) WB Mouse
Ye B, Wang Q, et al. Restoring autophagic flux attenuates cochlear spiral ganglion neuron degeneration by promoting TFEB nuclear translocation via inhibiting MTOR. Autophagy 2019-06-01 [PMID: 30706760] (WB, ICC/IF, Mouse) WB, ICC/IF Mouse
Wu A, Hu P, Lin J et al. Activating Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Protects Against Diabetic Cardiomyopathy Through Autophagy Induction. BMC Cancer. 2018-11-15 [PMID: 30459625] (WB, Mouse) WB Mouse
Kang I, Lee BC, Lee JY et al. Stem cell-secreted 14,15- epoxyeicosatrienoic acid rescues cholesterol homeostasis and autophagic flux in Niemann-Pick-type C disease. Arch Med Sci. 2018-10-01 [PMID: 30429460] (WB, Mouse) WB Mouse
Xie Q, Liu M, Yan YF et al. Exogenous tetranectin protects against MPP+-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy through p70S6K1 World Neurosurg 2018-10-17 [PMID: 30342268] (WB, Human) WB Human
Xie W, Zheng W, Liu M et al. BRF1 ameliorates LPS-induced inflammation through autophagy crosstalking with MAPK/ERK signaling Genes Dis 2018-09-01 [PMID: 30320187] (ICC/IF, Mouse) ICC/IF Mouse
Song R, Yang Y, Lei H et al. HDAC6 inhibition protects cardiomyocytes against doxorubicin-induced acute damage by improving a-tubulin acetylation J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 2018-10-10 [PMID: 30315806] (WB, Rat) WB Rat
An Q, Yan W, Zhao Y, Yu K. Enhanced neutrophil autophagy and increased concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and MCP-1 in rheumatoid arthritis Int. Immunopharmacol. 2018-10-09 [PMID: 30312880] (IF/IHC, ICC/IF, Human) IF/IHC, ICC/IF Human
Bao J, Shi Y, Tao M et al. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA attenuates hyperuricemic nephropathy Clin. Sci. 2018-10-07 [PMID: 30293967] (WB, Rat) WB Rat
Show All 14 Publications.

Reviews for LC3 Antibody Pack (NB910-40435) (3) 53

Average Rating: 5
(Based on 3 reviews)
We have 3 reviews tested in 1 species: Mouse.

Reviews using NB910-40435:
Filter by Applications
All Applications
Filter by Species
All Species
Images Ratings Applications Species Date Details
reviewed by:
Verified Customer
ICC Mouse 02/12/2019


Sample TestedHuman cell
Western Blot LC3 NB910-40435
reviewed by:
Liyong Zhang
WB Mouse 07/11/2014


ApplicationWestern Blot
Immunohistochemistry LC3 NB910-40435
reviewed by:
Sriram Ramanan
IHC Mouse 04/29/2014


Sample TestedHuman Brain

Product General Protocols

Video Protocols

WB Video Protocol
ICC/IF Video Protocol

FAQs for LC3 Antibody Pack (NB910-40435). (Showing 1 - 1 of 1 FAQs).

  1. Do you have a suggestion regarding the starting point for this antibody's dilution in Western blot?
    • We recommend starting with 2.0ug/ml when using this antibody in Western blot.

Additional LC3 Products

Bioinformatics Tool for LC3 Antibody Pack (NB910-40435)

Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to LC3 Antibody Pack (NB910-40435). Need help? Read the Bioinformatics Tool Guide for instructions on using this tool.
Visit Tool

Diseases for LC3 Antibody Pack (NB910-40435)

Discover more about diseases related to LC3 Antibody Pack (NB910-40435).

Pathways for LC3 Antibody Pack (NB910-40435)

View related products by pathway.

PTMs for LC3 Antibody Pack (NB910-40435)

Learn more about PTMs related to LC3 Antibody Pack (NB910-40435).

Research Areas for LC3 Antibody Pack (NB910-40435)

Find related products by research area.

Blogs on LC3. Showing 1-10 of 40 blog posts - Show all blog posts.

Autophagy and Metastasis
  By Christina Towers, PhD The majority of cancer patients die from metastatic disease at secondary sites. The threshold to undergo metastasis is high. Only a minority of cancer cells acquire invasive phenotypes...  Read full blog post.

Optogenetic Control of Mitophagy: AMBRA1 based mitophagy switch
By Christina Towers, PhD Mitophagy in the BrainSelective autophagic degradation of damaged mitochondria, known as mitophagy, has been described as a cyto-protective process. Accordingly, defects in mitophagy h...  Read full blog post.

Autophagic flux: Is p62 a good indicator?
By Christina Towers, PhD Is p62 a good indicator of autophagic flux? The short answer: Yes … but … SQSTM1 encodes the cargo adaptor protein, p62, which interacts with autophagic substrates and delivers them to aut...  Read full blog post.

Best genes to knockout to control autophagic flux
By Christina Towers, PhD Autophagy flux: Basic principlesAutophagic flux is defined as the amount of cellular material degraded and recycled through the process of autophagy, whereby cells break down and disca...  Read full blog post.

Make each cell count: How to assess autophagy using flow cytometry
Kristy R. Howell, PhDThe cellular recycling process known as autophagy may be induced by a variety of conditions including reduced nutrient availability, serum starvation and pharmacological agents (e.g., Rapamyci...  Read full blog post.

How to visualize autophagy by microscopy
By Christina Towers, PhD Autophagy is a recycling process that relies on the formation of a unique organelle termed an autophagosome. An elegant way to monitor autophagy is through various microscopy techniques to...  Read full blog post.

Microglia: pruning shears for homeostatic maintenance in the brain
By Jennifer Sokolowski, MD, PhD.Microglia play a critical role in pruning neurons and synapses during homeostatic maintenance in the adult brain.1 A recent study by Ayata et al. (2018) identified regional differe...  Read full blog post.

The LC3 A, B, C’s and 1, 2, 3’s
By Christina Towers, PhD Autophagy is a catabolic process used to breakdown and recycle damaged proteins and organelles. It is a multistep process that, in its simplest form, consists of 4 steps: initiation, phago...  Read full blog post.

Best way to quantitatively measure Autophagic Flux
By Christina Towers, PhD Autophagy is a stress-induced cellular recycling process that plays an important physiological role in many diseases. It is induced by a variety of stimuli, both intracellular and extracel...  Read full blog post.

Best Methods to Induce and Inhibit Autophagy Pharmacologically
By Christina Towers, PhD Autophagy facilitates the degradation and recycling of damaged cytoplasmic material. The multistep process includes a double membrane structure called an autophagosome that engulfs pr...  Read full blog post.

Showing 1-10 of 40 blog posts - Show all blog posts.

Customers Who Bought This Also Bought

Contact Information

Product PDFs

Recent Reviews


Verified Customer
Application: ICC
Species: Mouse

Liyong Zhang
Application: WB
Species: Mouse

Sriram Ramanan
Application: IHC
Species: Mouse


Gene Symbol MAP1LC3B