CTLA-4 Antibody (WKH203) - BSA Free

Images

 
Flow Cytometry: CTLA-4 Antibody (WKH203) [NB100-63254] - Analysis using the PE conjugate of NB100-63254. Staining of unstimulated (left) and 3-day ConA-stimulated (right) rat splenocytes with Anti-Mouse/Rat CD278 (ICOS) ...read more
Flow Cytometry: CTLA-4 Antibody (WKH203) [NB100-63254] - Staining of rat CD152 transfected cell line following permeabilisation with Leucoperm

Product Details

Summary
Reactivity RtSpecies Glossary
Applications WB, ELISA, Flow
Clone
WKH203
Clonality
Monoclonal
Host
Mouse
Conjugate
Unconjugated
Format
BSA Free
Concentration
1.0 mg/ml

CTLA-4 Antibody (WKH203) - BSA Free Summary

Immunogen
Purified rCTLA-4hIg fusion protein.
Localization
Type I membrane protein.
Specificity
NB100-63254 recognizes rat CD152, also known as cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), which is similar in structure to CD28 and also binds ligands CD80 and CD86. CD152 is expressed by activated T-lymphocytes. Studies suggest that CD152 is also expressed by regulatory T-lymphocytes.
Isotype
IgG1
Clonality
Monoclonal
Host
Mouse
Gene
CTLA4
Purity
Protein G purified
Innovator's Reward
Test in a species/application not listed above to receive a full credit towards a future purchase.

Applications/Dilutions

Dilutions
  • ELISA 1:100-1:2000
  • Flow Cytometry 1:10-1:20
  • Western Blot 1:100-1:2000
Application Notes
Membrane permeabilisation is required for this application.

Reactivity Notes

Reacts with Rat.

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Storage
Store at 4C short term. Aliquot and store at -20C long term. Avoid freeze-thaw cycles.
Buffer
PBS
Preservative
0.09% Sodium Azide
Concentration
1.0 mg/ml
Purity
Protein G purified

Alternate Names for CTLA-4 Antibody (WKH203) - BSA Free

  • CD
  • CD152 antigen
  • CD152
  • CD152IDDM12
  • CD28
  • celiac disease 3
  • CELIAC3
  • CTLA4
  • CTLA-4
  • cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4
  • cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4
  • Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4
  • cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4
  • cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated serine esterase-4
  • GRD4
  • GSE
  • ICOS
  • ligand and transmembrane spliced cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4

Background

Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4), also known as CD152, is a cell surface glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin family with a role in regulation of T cell activation (1). Human CTLA-4 is a 223 amino acid (aa) protein with a theoretical molecular weight of 24.6 kDa containing a leader peptide, a IgV-like domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail (1,2). CTLA-4 is both structurally and functionally related with another member of the immunoglobulin-related receptor family, CD28 (1-3). CTLA-4 and CD28 receptors are both expressed by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and share two common ligands, CD80 (B7.1) and CD86 (B7.2), expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs) (2,3). While CD28 is present on the plasma membrane of T cells, CTLA-4 is predominantly expressed intracellularly on vesicles in FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and activated T cells due to endocytosis (3). While they share ligands, the two receptors have opposing functions in T cell activation; CD28 is involved in activation of T cells, while CTLA-4 functions as a negative regulator of T cell response (2,3). One of the primary functions of CTLA-4 is preventing autoimmunity (1-4).

Similar to programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), CTLA-4 is an inhibitory immune checkpoint protein (3,5). Checkpoint blockade immunotherapy using drugs or antibodies to target CTLA-4 is one of the main approaches for cancer treatment (5). A number of drugs targeting CTLA-4, or a combination of CTLA-4/PD-1, have been approved for treatment of various cancers like melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and colorectal cancer (5). While blocking CTLA-4 in the tumor microenvironment is a promising cancer therapeutic, the absence of CTLA-4 under normal conditions can have deleterious effects. Studies have found that patients with CTLA-4 deficiency or mutations have clinical features associated with autoimmunity and immune dysregulation (4). Treatment options for CTLA-4 deficiency includes immunoglobulin-replacement therapy, corticosteroids, CTLA-4-immunoglobulin (Ig) fusion protein, and, in life-threatening cases, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (4,6). Additionally, engaging CD80/CD86 with CTLA-4-Ig is a common immunosuppressive treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and kidney transplant recipients (6).

References

1. Romo-Tena, J., Gomez-Martin, D., & Alcocer-Varela, J. (2013). CTLA-4 and autoimmunity: new insights into the dual regulator of tolerance. Autoimmunity reviews, 12(12), 1171-1176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2013.07.002

2. Hosseini, A., Gharibi, T., Marofi, F., Babaloo, Z., & Baradaran, B. (2020). CTLA-4: From mechanism to autoimmune therapy. International immunopharmacology, 80, 106221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106221

3. Rowshanravan, B., Halliday, N., & Sansom, D. M. (2018). CTLA-4: a moving target in immunotherapy. Blood, 131(1), 58-67. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2017-06-741033

4. Verma, N., Burns, S. O., Walker, L., & Sansom, D. M. (2017). Immune deficiency and autoimmunity in patients with CTLA-4 (CD152) mutations. Clinical and experimental immunology, 190(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/cei.12997

5. Rotte A. (2019). Combination of CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockers for treatment of cancer. Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR, 38(1), 255. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13046-019-1259-z

6. Bluestone, J. A., St Clair, E. W., & Turka, L. A. (2006). CTLA4Ig: bridging the basic immunology with clinical application. Immunity, 24(3), 233-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2006.03.001

Limitations

This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt.

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Bioinformatics

Gene Symbol CTLA4
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