CTLA-4 Antibody (2188A) [Alexa Fluor® 594] Summary
Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody
Chinese hamster ovary cell line CHO-derived recombinant human CTLA-4
Accession # P16410
Detects human CTLA-4 in direct ELISAs.
Test in a species/application not listed above to receive a full credit towards a future purchase.
- Flow Cytometry 0.25-1 ug/10^6 cells
Packaging, Storage & Formulations
|Protect from light. Do not freeze.
- 12 months from date of receipt, 2 to 8 °C as supplied.
Supplied 0.2 mg/mL in a saline solution containing BSA and Sodium Azide.
This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.
Alternate Names for CTLA-4 Antibody (2188A) [Alexa Fluor® 594]
- CD152 antigen
- celiac disease 3
- cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4
- cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4
- Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4
- cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4
- cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated serine esterase-4
- ligand and transmembrane spliced cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4
CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein‑4, designated CD152), is a type I transmembrane T cell inhibitory molecule that is a member of the Ig superfamily (1, 2). Human or mouse CTLA-4 cDNA encodes 223 amino acids (aa) including a 35 aa signal sequence, a 126 aa extracellular domain (ECD) with one Ig-like V-type domain, a 21 aa transmembrane (TM) sequence, and a 41 aa cytoplasmic sequence. It is found as a covalent homodimer of 41-43 kDa (2) Within the ECD, human CTLA-4 shares 68%, 71% and 83‑86% aa sequence identity with mouse, rat and porcine/bovine/rabbit/feline/canine CTLA-4, respectively. A 174 aa form that lacks TM and cytoplasmic sequences (sCTLA-4) is possibly secreted (3-5). Isoforms of 56-79 aa that mainly contain parts of the cytoplasmic domain are reported. In mouse, an isoform lacking the Ig-like domain has ligand-independent inhibitory activity and is termed liCTLA-4 (6). CD28, which is structurally related to CTLA-4, is constitutively expressed on naïve T cells and promotes T cell activation when engaged by B7-2 on antigen-presenting cells (APC) within the immunological synapse (IS) (1, 7, 8). In contrast, CTLA-4 is recruited from intracellular vesicles to the IS beginning 1-2 days after T cell activation (2, 7, 8). It forms a linear lattice with B7-1 on APC, inducing negative regulatory signals and ending T cell activation (9). Abatacept, a therapeutic human CTLA-4-Ig fusion protein (trade name Orencia), competes with CD28 for B7-1 and B7-2 binding and has been used to antagonize T cell activation in autoimmune conditions and to enhance transplant survival (10). Mice deleted for CTLA-4 show no abnormalities until after birth, but then develop lethal autoimmune reactions due to continued T cell activation and poor control by regulatory T cells, which constitutively express CTLA-4 in wild-type mice and humans (11-13).
- Harper, K. et al. (1991) J. Immunol. 147:1037.
- Teft, W.A. et al. (2006) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 24:65.
- Magistrelli, G. et al. (1999) Eur. J. Immunol. 29:3596.
- Tector, M. et al. (2009) BMC Immunol. 10:51.
- Oaks, M.K. and K.M. Hallett (2000) J. Immunol. 164:5015.
- Vijayakrishnan, L. et al. (2004) Immunity 20:563.
- Pentcheva-Hoang, T. et al. (2004) Immunity 21:401.
- Jansson, A. et al. (2005) J. Immunol 175:1575.
- Darlington, P.J. et al. (2005) J. Immunol. 175:996.
- Platt, A.M. et al. (2010) J. Immunol. 185:1558.
- Wing, K. et al. (2008) Science 322:271.
- Friedline, R.H. et al. (2009) J. Exp. Med. 206:421.
- Jain, N. et al. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107:1524.
This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Primary Antibodies are guaranteed
for 1 year from date of receipt.
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