The Proteasome and Autophagy Pathways in Alzheimer's Disease

The neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer's disease, is responsible for 60 to 80% of all dementia cases.1   Neurodegeneration occurs in response to the accumulation of amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau.

The C99 fragment of amyloid precursor protein (APP)

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by an abundance of the beta-amyloid peptide in the brain.  When AD was first discovered, it was determined that beta-amyloid was produced as a result of the proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP).  Aside from its role in AD, the single-pass transmembrane APP has a high expression level in the brain and tends to concentrate at the synapses of neurons.  Because of this localization, it has been suggested that APP plays a role in synapse formation and potentially plasticity.  However, the

Beta Amyloid (MOAB2) and the link between traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer’s disease

An epidemiological association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has long been established.  Interestingly, an increase in beta amyloid  (one hallmark of AD) directly following TBI has been observed.  In fact, it has been reported that with a greater level of TBI comes a higher risk of developing AD, or other neurodegenerative disorders, in the future.  Roberts et al first presented research that beta amyloid plaques found in TBI patients are very similar to those found in AD patients.

Niemann Pick-C1 and cholesterol dynamics

Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) mediates low-density cholesterol transport from late endosomes and lysosomes to other areas of the cell via receptor mediation endocytosis.  Although cholesterol moves freely inside the cell, it cannot independently export out of the lysosome, which is where NPC1 steps in.

FANCD2 and DNA damage repair

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically inherited disorder that yields cytogenetic instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking compounds and defective DNA repair. A variety of genes have been identified within the FA pathway that are referred to as the Fanconi anemia complementation group.  One member of this group, FANCD2, is monoubiquitinated in response to DNA damage.  At this point, FANCD2 specifically localizes to the nucleus to represent the site of DNA repair, often times to the DNA replication fork.

Beta Amyloid Neurotoxicity and Alzheimer's Disease

A major histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the presence of amyloid deposits in the parenchyma of the amygdala, hippocampus, and neocortex. The principal component of amyloid is beta amyloid (AB). The pathologic accumulation of AB in plaques is postulated to result from an imbalance between production and clearance during aging.

ApoE: The Key to Preventing Alzheimer's Disease?

Apolipoprotein E also known as ApoE is a 36kDa protein that is expressed in all lipoprotein fractions in plasma. This protein is produced in high quantities in the liver, brain, spleen, lung and kidney. The function of APOE is to mediate the binding, internalize and catabolize lipoprotein particles. A study carried out by researchers at the Case Western Reserve University in Ohio has recently been highlighted in the BBC Health News.

Amyloid beta and Methionine Sulfoxide Related to Abeta 42 Antibody and Abeta 40 Antibody