Liver ASK1 activates autophagy to protect against hepatic fat accumulation, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis

Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration: Protein aggregation and failure of autophagy

Animal Models to Study Autophagy

Atg9b - a marker for autophagosome induction and assembly

Atg9 is the only essential transmembrane protein involved in cellular autophagy. Autophagy regulates cellular homeostasis by allowing the turnover and recycling of misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. Formation of the double-membrane isolation membrane that forms the pre-autophagosome requires the contribution of highly mobile cytoplasmic vesicles containing Atg9. These vesicles are derived from recycling endosomes and are responsible for recruiting and delivering lipid components to the assembling autophagosome.

ATG9A - early marker autophagosome assembly

ATG9A is the only essential integral membrane protein involved in autophagy. ATG9A contains six transmembrane domains and initiates the assembly of autophagosomes. The autophagosome is a double-membrane structure that engulfs and eventually degrades cytoplasmic materials such as organelles or macromolecules. Assembly of the autophagosome requires the delivery of lipids and membrane components to initiate and expand the double-membrane pre-autophagosome structure called the isolation membrane.