|Toll-like receptor 2 activation contributes to oral squamous cell carcinoma development and miRNA-mediated drug resistance
By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common cancer in the oral cavity.1 The tumor surface biofilms in oral cancers contain high levels of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms.1,2 Peri... Read more.
|Toll-like receptors in the intestinal epithelial cells
By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are microbe-sensing proteins that act as first responders to danger signals. TLRs help the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) recognize commensal bacteria... Read more.
|The role of STING/TMEM173 in gamma and encephalitis Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
Stimulator of interferon genes (STING), also known as TMEM173, promotes the production of the interferon’s IFN-alpha and IFN-beta. STING possesses three functional domains: a cytoplasmic C-terminal tail, a central globular domain, and four N-... Read more.
|TRIF/TICAM1 and mitochondrial dynamics in the innate immune response
TRIF, also known as toll like receptor adaptor molecule 1 or TICAM1, is known for its role in invading foreign pathogens as part of our innate immune response. TRIF/TICAM1 is a TIR-domain adaptor protein (toll/interleukin-1 receptor) that interacts... Read more.
|MHC Class I and the Herpes Simplex Virus
MHC molecules (also known as major histocompatibility complex molecules) assist in the presentation of antigens to T cells in order to eradicate foreign pathogens. These molecules are highly polymorphic, meaning that they exist in multiple varian... Read more.
|The role of TLR4 in breast cancer
Toll like receptors (TLRs) are highly conserved proteins that are first known for their role in pathogen recognition and immune response activation. In order to elicit the necessary immune response in reaction to a foreign pathogen, TLRs trigger cy... Read more.
|TLR2 - I can recognize many foreign pathogens!
TLR2 is a member of the broad family of Toll-like receptors (TLR) that play an important role in pathogen recognition and innate immunity. TLRs, like other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), recognize endogenous ligands released during cell or tiss... Read more.
|IRAK4: The "master IRAK" critical for initiating immune responses
IRAK4, also known as Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4, is a serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays a critical role in initiating innate and adaptive immune responses against foreign pathogens. It activates NF-kappaB in both Toll-like rec... Read more.
TLR1 belongs to the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, and is a key player in the recognition of pathogens as well as the activation of the innate immunity system. TLRs are highly conserved proteins with a high degree of structural and functional homolo... Read more.