Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) Agonists

Toll-like Receptor

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Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) Ligands

The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to activate immunity and inflammatory cascades. The use of potent TLR ligands to activate TLR signaling cascades allows specific TLRs and their effect on immune activation to be studied.

 

Ligand

Description

TLR1

PAM3CSK4

A synthetic lipopeptide that mimics the acylated amino terminus of bacterial lipoproteins. It is recognized by a heterodimer which is formed between TLR1 and TLR2.

TLR2

PAM3CSK4

MALP-2

Zymosan

A synthetic lipopeptide that mimics the acylated amino terminus of bacterial lipoproteins. It is recognized by a heterodimer which is formed between TLR1 and TLR2.

A lipopeptide originally isolated from Mycoplasma fermentans. MALP-2 is recognized by a heterodimer formed between TLR2 and TLR6.

A cell wall preparation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is composed primarily of glucans, mannans, mannoproteins and chitin. It activates TLR2 in synergistic collaboration with Dectin-1, a C-type lectin that is expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells as a phagocytic receptor for glucan containing particles

TLR3

Poly (I:C)

A synthetic analogue of double-stranded RNA, produced during the replication of many viruses; it binds directly to TLR3

TLR4

LPS

A standard lipopolysaccharide preparation. LPS is a major component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. Recognition of LPS requires TLR4 in addition to CD14, and is enhanced by MD-2, a secreted glycoprotein which forms a receptor complex with TLR4.

TLR5

Flagellin

A key component of bacterial flagellae, which are appendages used primarily for locomotion. It is highly conserved amongst both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and is recognized by TLR5

TLR6

MALP-2

A lipopeptide originally isolated from Mycoplasma fermentans. MALP-2 is recognized by a heterodimer formed between TLR2 and TLR6.

TLR7

Imiquimod

Imidazoquinoline Resiquimod

An imidazoquinoline amine analog to guanosine.

A synthetic imidazoquinoline. It has been demonstrated to activate TLR7 and TLR8.

TLR8

Imidazoquinoline Resiquimod

A synthetic imidazoquinoline. It has been demonstrated to activate TLR7 and TLR8.

TLR9

CpG ODN

Synthetic oligonucleotide containing unmethylated deoxycytosine-deoxyguanosine (CpG) motifs.



Toll-like Receptor

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