Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 Protein


1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing single bands at 12 kDa and 24 kDa, respectively.
Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 (Catalog # 240-B) inhibits Recombinant Mouse IL‑4 (Catalog # 404-ML) induced proliferation in the HT-2 mouse T cell line. The ED50 for this effect is 0.04-0.2 ng/mL.
Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) was induced in the A549 human lung carcinoma cell line with cell culture media supplemented with Recombinant Human (rh) TGF-beta 1 (Catalog # 240-B). Control cells were more

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Applications Bioactivity

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Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 Protein Summary

Additional Information
An alternative TGF-beta 1 is now available! 7754-BH is Hek293 expressed
Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to inhibit the IL-4-dependent proliferation of HT‑2 mouse T cells. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389. The ED50 for this effect is 0.04-0.2 ng/mL.
The specific activity of Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 is approximately 2.5 x 104 U/μg, which is calibrated against human TGF‑ beta 1 Standard (NIBSC code: 89/514).
Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived human TGF-beta 1 protein
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Structure / Form
Disulfide-linked homodimer
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
>97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Note
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


Theoretical MW
12.8 kDa (monomer).
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
12 kDa, reducing conditions
24 kDa, non-reducing conditions
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240-B in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
>97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Reconstitution Instructions
Purified recombinant human TGF-beta 1 is an extremely hydrophobic protein that adheres strongly to surfaces. To ensure recovery, reconstitute at 20 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing 1 mg/mL human or bovine serum albumin.


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 Protein

  • DPD1
  • latency-associated peptide
  • TGF beta1
  • TGFB
  • TGFB1
  • TGF-beta 1 protein
  • TGFbeta 1
  • TGF-beta 1
  • TGFbeta
  • TGF-beta-1
  • transforming growth factor beta-1
  • transforming growth factor, beta 1


TGF-beta 1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) is one of three closely related mammalian members of the large TGF-beta superfamily that share a characteristic cystine knot structure (1‑7). TGF-beta 1, -2 and -3 are highly pleiotropic cytokines that are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (1‑4). Each TGF-beta isoform has some non‑redundant functions; for TGF-beta 1, mice with targeted deletion show defects in hematopoiesis and endothelial differentiation, and die of overwhelming inflammation (2). Human TGF‑ beta 1 cDNA encodes a 390 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 29 aa signal peptide and a 361 aa proprotein (8). A furin‑like convertase processes the proprotein to generate an N‑terminal 249 aa latency‑associated peptide (LAP) and a C‑terminal 112 aa mature TGF‑ beta 1 (8, 9). Disulfide‑linked homodimers of LAP and TGF‑ beta 1 remain non‑covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF‑ beta 1 complex (8‑10). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF‑ beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (9, 10). TGF‑ beta is activated from latency by pathways that include actions of the protease plasmin, matrix metalloproteases, thrombospondin 1 and a subset of integrins (10). Mature human TGF‑ beta 1 shares 100% aa identity with pig, dog and cow TGF‑ beta 1, and 99% aa identity with mouse, rat and horse TGF‑ beta 1. It demonstrates cross‑species activity (1). TGF‑ beta 1 signaling begins with high‑affinity binding to a type II ser/thr kinase receptor termed TGF‑ beta RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates a second ser/thr kinase receptor, TGF‑ beta RI (also called activin receptor‑like kinase (ALK) ‑5), or alternatively, ALK‑1. This complex phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription (3, 11, 12). Contributions of the accessory receptors betaglycan (also known as TGF‑ beta  RIII) and endoglin, or use of Smad‑independent signaling pathways, allow for disparate actions observed in response to TGF‑ beta in different contexts (11).
  1. Derynck, R. and K. Miyazono (2008) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 29.
  2. Dunker, N. and K. Krieglstein (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
  3. Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
  4. Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
  5. Lin, J.S. et al. (2006) Reproduction 132:179.
  6. Hinck, A.P. et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35:8517.
  7. Mittl, P.R.E. et al. (1996) Protein Sci. 5:1261.
  8. Derynck, R. et al. (1985) Nature 316:701.
  9. Miyazono, K. et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263:6407.
  10. Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
  11. de Caestecker, M. et al. (2004) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 15:1.
  12. Zuniga, J.E. et al. (2005) J. Mol. Biol. 354:1052.

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Publications for TGF-beta 1 (240-B)(652)

We have publications tested in 14 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Rat, Bovine, Canine, Chicken, Equine, Feline, Fish, Mink, N/A, Porcine, Rabbit, Virus.

We have publications tested in 12 applications: Bioassay, Cell Culture, ELISA (Standard), ELISA Developmet, ELISA Standard, IHC-P, In Vivo, Standard, Stimulation, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR, Tissue Culture, Western Blot.

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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 652. Show All 652 Publications.
Publications using 240-B Applications Species
QM Nhu, L Hsieh, L Dohil, R Dohil, RO Newbury, R Kurten, FJ Moawad, SS Aceves Antifibrotic Effects of the Thiazolidinediones in Eosinophilic Esophagitis Pathologic Remodeling: A Preclinical Evaluation Clin Transl Gastroenterol, 2020;11(4):e00164. 2020 [PMID: 32352681] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
LK Senavirath, C Huang, S Pushparaj, D Xu, L Liu Hypoxia and transforming growth factor &amp;beta1 regulation of long non-coding RNA transcriptomes in human pulmonary fibroblasts Physiol Rep, 2020;8(1):e14343. 2020 [PMID: 31925944] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
YZ Huang, CG Wu, HQ Xie, ZY Li, A Silini, O Parolini, Y Wu, L Deng, YC Huang Strontium Promotes the Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Placental Decidual Basalis- and Bone Marrow-Derived MSCs in a Dose-Dependent Manner Stem Cells Int, 2019;2019(0):4242178. 2019 [PMID: 31885606] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
L Andersen, AF Gülich, M Alteneder, T Preglej, MJ Orola, N Dhele, V Stolz, A Schebesta, P Hamminger, A Hladik, S Floess, T Krausgrube, T Faux, SBA Andrabi, J Huehn, S Knapp, T Sparwasser, C Bock, A Laiho, LL Elo, O Rasool, R Lahesmaa, S Sakaguchi, W Ellmeier The Transcription Factor MAZR/PATZ1 Regulates the Development of FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells Cell Rep, 2019;29(13):4447-4459.e6. 2019 [PMID: 31875552] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
B Li, C Yan, J Wu, K Stephane, X Dong, YZ Zhang, Y Zhang, Q Yu, KY Zheng Clonorchis sinensis ESPs enhance the activation of hepatic stellate cells by a cross-talk of TLR4 and TGF-beta/Smads Signaling pathway Acta Trop., 2019;0(0):105307. 2019 [PMID: 31862462] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
M Tochimoto, Y Oguri, M Hashimura, R Konno, T Matsumoto, A Yokoi, Y Kodera, M Saegusa S100A4/non-muscle myosin II signaling regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stemness in uterine carcinosarcoma Lab. Invest., 2019;0(0):. 2019 [PMID: 31857700] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
J Huang, S Chang, Y Lu, J Wang, Y Si, L Zhang, S Cheng, WG Jiang Enhanced osteopontin splicing regulated by RUNX2 is HDAC-dependent and induces invasive phenotypes in NSCLC cells Cancer Cell Int., 2019;19(0):306. 2019 [PMID: 31832019] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
P Stylianou, K Clark, B Gooptu, D Smallwood, CE Brightling, Y Amrani, KM Roach, P Bradding Tensin1 expression and function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Sci Rep, 2019;9(1):18942. 2019 [PMID: 31831813] (Stimulation, Human) Stimulation Human
E Foxall, A Staszowska, LM Hirvonen, M Georgouli, M Ciccioli, A Rimmer, L Williams, Y Calle, VS Moreno, S Cox, GE Jones, CM Wells PAK4 Kinase Activity Plays a Crucial Role in the Podosome Ring of Myeloid Cells Cell Rep, 2019;29(11):3385-3393.e6. 2019 [PMID: 31825823] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
RW Scott, M Arostegui, R Schweitzer, FMV Rossi, TM Underhill Hic1 Defines Quiescent Mesenchymal Progenitor Subpopulations with Distinct Functions and Fates in Skeletal Muscle Regeneration Cell Stem Cell, 2019;25(6):797-813.e9. 2019 [PMID: 31809738] (Cell Culture, Mouse) Cell Culture Mouse
Show All 652 Publications.

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Gene Symbol TGFB1