Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 Protein


Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) was induced in the A549 human lung carcinoma cell line with cell culture media supplemented with Recombinant Human (rh) TGF-beta 1 (Catalog # 240-B). Control cells were more
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing single bands at 12 kDa and 24 kDa, respectively.
Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 (Catalog # 240-B) inhibits Recombinant Mouse IL‑4 (Catalog # 404-ML) induced proliferation in the HT-2 mouse T cell line. The ED50 for this effect is 0.04-0.2 ng/mL.

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Reactivity HuSpecies Glossary
Applications Bioactivity

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Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 Protein Summary

Additional Information
A New TGF-beta 1 is Available! The new protein is Hek293 expressed!
New Product 7754-BH
Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to inhibit the IL-4-dependent proliferation of HT‑2 mouse T cells. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389. The ED50 for this effect is 0.04-0.2 ng/mL.
The specific activity of Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 is approximately 2.5 x 104 U/μg, which is calibrated against human TGF‑ beta 1 Standard (NIBSC code: 89/514).
Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived human TGF-beta 1 protein
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Structure / Form
Disulfide-linked homodimer
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
>97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Note
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


Theoretical MW
12.8 kDa (monomer).
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
12 kDa, reducing conditions
24 kDa, non-reducing conditions
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240-B in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
>97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Reconstitution Instructions
Purified recombinant human TGF-beta 1 is an extremely hydrophobic protein that adheres strongly to surfaces. To ensure recovery, reconstitute at 20 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing 1 mg/mL human or bovine serum albumin.


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 Protein

  • DPD1
  • latency-associated peptide
  • TGFB
  • TGFB1
  • TGF-beta 1 protein
  • TGFbeta 1
  • TGF-beta 1
  • TGFbeta
  • TGF-beta-1
  • transforming growth factor beta-1
  • transforming growth factor, beta 1


TGF-beta 1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) is one of three closely related mammalian members of the large TGF-beta superfamily that share a characteristic cystine knot structure (1‑7). TGF-beta 1, -2 and -3 are highly pleiotropic cytokines that are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (1‑4). Each TGF-beta isoform has some non‑redundant functions; for TGF-beta 1, mice with targeted deletion show defects in hematopoiesis and endothelial differentiation, and die of overwhelming inflammation (2). Human TGF‑ beta 1 cDNA encodes a 390 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 29 aa signal peptide and a 361 aa proprotein (8). A furin‑like convertase processes the proprotein to generate an N‑terminal 249 aa latency‑associated peptide (LAP) and a C‑terminal 112 aa mature TGF‑ beta 1 (8, 9). Disulfide‑linked homodimers of LAP and TGF‑ beta 1 remain non‑covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF‑ beta 1 complex (8‑10). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF‑ beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (9, 10). TGF‑ beta is activated from latency by pathways that include actions of the protease plasmin, matrix metalloproteases, thrombospondin 1 and a subset of integrins (10). Mature human TGF‑ beta 1 shares 100% aa identity with pig, dog and cow TGF‑ beta 1, and 99% aa identity with mouse, rat and horse TGF‑ beta 1. It demonstrates cross‑species activity (1). TGF‑ beta 1 signaling begins with high‑affinity binding to a type II ser/thr kinase receptor termed TGF‑ beta RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates a second ser/thr kinase receptor, TGF‑ beta RI (also called activin receptor‑like kinase (ALK) ‑5), or alternatively, ALK‑1. This complex phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription (3, 11, 12). Contributions of the accessory receptors betaglycan (also known as TGF‑ beta  RIII) and endoglin, or use of Smad‑independent signaling pathways, allow for disparate actions observed in response to TGF‑ beta in different contexts (11).
  1. Derynck, R. and K. Miyazono (2008) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 29.
  2. Dunker, N. and K. Krieglstein (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
  3. Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
  4. Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
  5. Lin, J.S. et al. (2006) Reproduction 132:179.
  6. Hinck, A.P. et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35:8517.
  7. Mittl, P.R.E. et al. (1996) Protein Sci. 5:1261.
  8. Derynck, R. et al. (1985) Nature 316:701.
  9. Miyazono, K. et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263:6407.
  10. Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
  11. de Caestecker, M. et al. (2004) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 15:1.
  12. Zuniga, J.E. et al. (2005) J. Mol. Biol. 354:1052.

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Publications for TGF-beta 1 (240-B)(506)

We have publications tested in 12 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Rat, Bovine, Canine, Chicken, Equine, Feline, Mink, N/A, Porcine, Rabbit.

We have publications tested in 7 applications: Bioassay, ELISA Standard, ELISA development, In Vivo, Standard, WB Ctrl, cell culture.

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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 506. Show All 506 Publications.
Publications using 240-B Applications Species
X Feng, Z Li, J Wei, Z Feng, W Wu, Y Zhao Injectable cartilaginous template transformed BMSCs into vascularized bone Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):8244. 2018 [PMID: 29844536] (Bioassay, Rabbit) Bioassay Rabbit
CB Cummins, X Wang, O Nunez Lope, G Graham, HY Tie, J Zhou, RS Radhakrish Luteolin-Mediated Inhibition of Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation via Suppression of the STAT3 Pathway Int J Mol Sci, 2018;19(6):. 2018 [PMID: 29795016] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
YH Chung, YH Huang, TH Chu, CL Chen, PR Lin, SC Huang, DC Wu, CC Huang, TH Hu, YH Kao, MH Tai BMP-2 restoration aids in recovery from liver fibrosis by attenuating TGF-?1 signaling Lab. Invest., 2018;0(0):. 2018 [PMID: 29789683] (Bioassay, Rat) Bioassay Rat
S Lively, D Lam, R Wong, LC Schlichter Comparing Effects of Transforming Growth Factor ?1 on Microglia From Rat and Mouse: Transcriptional Profiles and Potassium Channels Front Cell Neurosci, 2018;12(0):115. 2018 [PMID: 29780305] (Bioassay, Rat) Bioassay Rat
K Schlereth, D Weichenhan, T Bauer, T Heumann, E Giannakour, D Lipka, S Jaeger, M Schlesner, P Aloy, R Eils, C Plass, HG Augustin The transcriptomic and epigenetic map of vascular quiescence in the continuous lung endothelium Elife, 2018;7(0):. 2018 [PMID: 29749927] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
L Huang, J Deng, W Xu, H Wang, L Shi, F Wu, D Wu, W Nei, M Zhao, P Mao, X Zhou CD8+ T cells with high TGF??1 expression cause lymph node fibrosis following HIV infection Mol Med Rep, 2018;0(0):. 2018 [PMID: 29749506] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
S Ottaviani, J Stebbing, AE Frampton, S Zagorac, J Krell, A de Giorgio, SM Trabulo, VTM Nguyen, L Magnani, H Feng, E Giovannett, N Funel, TM Gress, LR Jiao, Y Lombardo, NR Lemoine, C Heeschen, L Castellano TGF-? induces miR-100 and miR-125b but blocks let-7a through LIN28B controlling PDAC progression Nat Commun, 2018;9(1):1845. 2018 [PMID: 29748571] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
CC Tsai, SB Wu, HC Kau, YH Wei Essential role of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation from Graves&#039; orbital fibroblasts Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):7276. 2018 [PMID: 29739987] (ELISA Standard) ELISA Standard
C Deng, YX Lin, XK Qi, GP He, Y Zhang, HJ Zhang, M Xu, QS Feng, JX Bei, YX Zeng, L Feng TNFRSF19 inhibits TGF? signaling through interaction with TGF? receptor type I to promote tumorigenesis Cancer Res., 2018;0(0):. 2018 [PMID: 29735548] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
LR Penke, JM Speth, VL Dommeti, ES White, IL Bergin, M Peters-Gol FOXM1 is a critical driver of lung fibroblast activation and fibrogenesis J. Clin. Invest., 2018;0(0):. 2018 [PMID: 29733296] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Show All 506 Publications.

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TGF-beta 1 - a versatile signaling molecule with roles in development and disease
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family consists of a wide variety of signaling proteins with roles in development. TGF-beta signaling controls growth, differentiation, and immune responses and is often misregulated in cancer. TGF-beta...  Read full blog post.

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Gene Symbol TGFB1