Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 Protein


Equivalent bioactivity of CHO-derived (Catalog # 240-B) and HEK293-derived (7754-BH) Recombinant Human TGF‑ beta 1 as measured by its ability to inhibit the IL-4-dependent proliferation of HT‑2 mouse T cell. more

Product Details

Reactivity HuSpecies Glossary
Applications Bioactivity

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Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 Protein Summary

Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to inhibit the IL-4-dependent proliferation of HT‑2 mouse T cells. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389. The ED50 for this effect is 0.0400-0.200 ng/mL.
Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived human TGF-beta 1 protein
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Structure / Form
Disulfide-linked homodimer
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
>97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Note
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


  • Bioactivity
Theoretical MW
12.8 kDa (monomer).
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
12 kDa, reducing conditions
24 kDa, non-reducing conditions
Read Publications using
240-B in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
>97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Reconstitution Instructions
Purified recombinant human TGF-beta 1 is an extremely hydrophobic protein that adheres strongly to surfaces. To ensure recovery, reconstitute 2 μg vials at 20 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing 1 mg/mL human or bovine serum albumin. Reconstitute 10 μg or larger vials at 100 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing 1 mg/mL human or bovine serum albumin. 


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 Protein

  • DPD1
  • latency-associated peptide
  • TGF beta
  • TGF beta1
  • TGFB
  • TGFB1
  • TGF-beta 1 protein
  • TGFbeta 1
  • TGF-beta 1
  • TGFbeta
  • TGF-beta-1
  • transforming growth factor beta-1
  • transforming growth factor, beta 1


TGF-beta 1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) is one of three closely related mammalian members of the large TGF-beta superfamily that share a characteristic cystine knot structure (1‑7). TGF-beta 1, -2 and -3 are highly pleiotropic cytokines that are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (1‑4). Each TGF-beta isoform has some non‑redundant functions; for TGF-beta 1, mice with targeted deletion show defects in hematopoiesis and endothelial differentiation, and die of overwhelming inflammation (2). Human TGF‑ beta 1 cDNA encodes a 390 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 29 aa signal peptide and a 361 aa proprotein (8). A furin‑like convertase processes the proprotein to generate an N‑terminal 249 aa latency‑associated peptide (LAP) and a C‑terminal 112 aa mature TGF‑ beta 1 (8, 9). Disulfide‑linked homodimers of LAP and TGF‑ beta 1 remain non‑covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF‑ beta 1 complex (8‑10). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF‑ beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (9, 10). TGF‑ beta is activated from latency by pathways that include actions of the protease plasmin, matrix metalloproteases, thrombospondin 1 and a subset of integrins (10). Mature human TGF‑ beta 1 shares 100% aa identity with pig, dog and cow TGF‑ beta 1, and 99% aa identity with mouse, rat and horse TGF‑ beta 1. It demonstrates cross‑species activity (1). TGF‑ beta 1 signaling begins with high‑affinity binding to a type II ser/thr kinase receptor termed TGF‑ beta RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates a second ser/thr kinase receptor, TGF‑ beta RI (also called activin receptor‑like kinase (ALK) ‑5), or alternatively, ALK‑1. This complex phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription (3, 11, 12). Contributions of the accessory receptors betaglycan (also known as TGF‑ beta  RIII) and endoglin, or use of Smad‑independent signaling pathways, allow for disparate actions observed in response to TGF‑ beta in different contexts (11).
  1. Derynck, R. and K. Miyazono (2008) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 29.
  2. Dunker, N. and K. Krieglstein (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
  3. Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
  4. Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
  5. Lin, J.S. et al. (2006) Reproduction 132:179.
  6. Hinck, A.P. et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35:8517.
  7. Mittl, P.R.E. et al. (1996) Protein Sci. 5:1261.
  8. Derynck, R. et al. (1985) Nature 316:701.
  9. Miyazono, K. et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263:6407.
  10. Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
  11. de Caestecker, M. et al. (2004) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 15:1.
  12. Zuniga, J.E. et al. (2005) J. Mol. Biol. 354:1052.

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Publications for TGF-beta 1 (240-B)(841)

We have publications tested in 14 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Rat, Bovine, Canine, Chicken, Equine, Feline, Fish, Mink, Porcine, Rabbit, Transgenic Mouse, Virus.

We have publications tested in 12 applications: Bioassay, Cell Culture, Differentiation, ELISA (Standard), ELISA Capture, ELISA Standard, IHC-P, In Vivo, Stimulation, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR, Tissue Culture, Western Blot.

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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 841. Show All 841 Publications.
Publications using 240-B Applications Species
Dirand, Z;Tissot, M;Chatelain, B;Viennet, C;Rolin, G; Is Spheroid a Relevant Model to Address Fibrogenesis in Keloid Research? Biomedicines 2023-08-23 [PMID: 37760792] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Jalan-Sakrikar, N;Anwar, A;Yaqoob, U;Gan, C;Lagnado, AB;Wixom, AQ;Jurk, D;Huebert, RC; Telomere dysfunction promotes cholangiocyte senescence and biliary fibrosis in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis JCI insight 2023-09-14 [PMID: 37707950] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Suzuki, M;Sakai, S;Ota, K;Bando, Y;Uchida, C;Niida, H;Kitagawa, M;Ohhata, T; CCIVR2 facilitates comprehensive identification of both overlapping and non-overlapping antisense transcripts within specified regions Scientific reports 2023-09-08 [PMID: 37684517] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
Vaikunthanathan, T;Landmann, E;Correa, DM;Romano, M;Trevelin, SC;Peng, Q;Crespo, E;Corrado, M;Lozano, JJ;Pearce, EL;Perpinan, E;Zoccarato, A;Siew, L;Edwards-Hicks, J;Khan, R;Luu, NT;Thursz, MR;Newsome, PN;Martinez-Llordella, M;Shah, N;Lechler, RI;Shah, AM;Sanchez-Fueyo, A;Lombardi, G;Safinia, N; Dysregulated anti-oxidant signalling and compromised mitochondrial integrity negatively influence regulatory T cell function and viability in liver disease EBioMedicine 2023-08-30 [PMID: 37657135] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Mercader-Barceló, J;Martín-Medina, A;Truyols-Vives, J;Escarrer-Garau, G;Elowsson, L;Montes-Worboys, A;Río-Bocos, C;Muncunill-Farreny, J;Velasco-Roca, J;Cederberg, A;Kadefors, M;Molina-Molina, M;Westergren-Thorsson, G;Sala-Llinàs, E; Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Lung Resident Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Patients Cells 2023-08-17 [PMID: 37626894] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
Zhou, L;Fang, L;Tamm, M;Stolz, D;Roth, M; Extracellular Heat Shock Protein 70 Increases the Glucocorticoid Receptor and Dual-Specificity Phosphatase 1 via Toll-like Receptor 4 and Attenuates Inflammation in Airway Epithelial Cells International journal of molecular sciences 2023-07-20 [PMID: 37511459] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Koncina, E;Nurmik, M;Pozdeev, VI;Gilson, C;Tsenkova, M;Begaj, R;Stang, S;Gaigneaux, A;Weindorfer, C;Rodriguez, F;Schmoetten, M;Klein, E;Karta, J;Atanasova, VS;Grzyb, K;Ullmann, P;Halder, R;Hengstschläger, M;Graas, J;Augendre, V;Karapetyan, YE;Kerger, L;Zuegel, N;Skupin, A;Haan, S;Meiser, J;Dolznig, H;Letellier, E; IL1R1+ cancer-associated fibroblasts drive tumor development and immunosuppression in colorectal cancer Nature communications 2023-07-17 [PMID: 37460545] (Differentiation, Mouse) Differentiation Mouse
Erdem, C;Gross, SM;Heiser, LM;Birtwistle, MR; MOBILE pipeline enables identification of context-specific networks and regulatory mechanisms Nature communications 2023-07-06 [PMID: 37414767] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Wang, S;Qu, Y;Fang, X;Ding, Q;Zhao, H;Yu, X;Xu, T;Lu, R;Jing, S;Liu, C;Wu, H;Liu, Y; Decorin: a potential therapeutic candidate for ligamentum flavum hypertrophy by antagonizing TGF-beta 1 Experimental & molecular medicine 2023-07-03 [PMID: 37394592] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Madsen, SF;Sand, JMB;Juhl, P;Karsdal, M;Thudium, CS;Siebuhr, AS;Bay-Jensen, AC; Fibroblasts are not just fibroblasts: clear differences between dermal and pulmonary fibroblasts' response to fibrotic growth factors Scientific reports 2023-06-09 [PMID: 37296166] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human