Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 Protein


Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) was induced in the A549 human lung carcinoma cell line with cell culture media supplemented with Recombinant Human (rh) TGF-beta 1 (Catalog # 240-B). Control cells were more
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing single bands at 12 kDa and 24 kDa, respectively.
Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 (Catalog # 240-B) inhibits Recombinant Mouse IL‑4 (Catalog # 404-ML) induced proliferation in the HT-2 mouse T cell line. The ED50 for this effect is 0.04-0.2 ng/mL.

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Reactivity HuSpecies Glossary
Applications Bioactivity

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Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 Protein Summary

Additional Information
A New TGF-beta 1 is Available! The new protein is Hek293 expressed!
Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to inhibit the IL-4-dependent proliferation of HT‑2 mouse T cells. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389. The ED50 for this effect is 0.04-0.2 ng/mL.
The specific activity of Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 is approximately 2.5 x 104 U/μg, which is calibrated against human TGF‑ beta 1 Standard (NIBSC code: 89/514).
Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived human TGF-beta 1 protein
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Structure / Form
Disulfide-linked homodimer
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
>97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Note
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


Theoretical MW
12.8 kDa (monomer).
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
12 kDa, reducing conditions
24 kDa, non-reducing conditions
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240-B in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
>97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Reconstitution Instructions
Purified recombinant human TGF-beta 1 is an extremely hydrophobic protein that adheres strongly to surfaces. To ensure recovery, reconstitute at 20 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing 1 mg/mL human or bovine serum albumin.


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 Protein

  • DPD1
  • latency-associated peptide
  • TGFB
  • TGFB1
  • TGF-beta 1 protein
  • TGFbeta 1
  • TGF-beta 1
  • TGFbeta
  • TGF-beta-1
  • transforming growth factor beta-1
  • transforming growth factor, beta 1


TGF-beta 1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) is one of three closely related mammalian members of the large TGF-beta superfamily that share a characteristic cystine knot structure (1‑7). TGF-beta 1, -2 and -3 are highly pleiotropic cytokines that are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (1‑4). Each TGF-beta isoform has some non‑redundant functions; for TGF-beta 1, mice with targeted deletion show defects in hematopoiesis and endothelial differentiation, and die of overwhelming inflammation (2). Human TGF‑ beta 1 cDNA encodes a 390 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 29 aa signal peptide and a 361 aa proprotein (8). A furin‑like convertase processes the proprotein to generate an N‑terminal 249 aa latency‑associated peptide (LAP) and a C‑terminal 112 aa mature TGF‑ beta 1 (8, 9). Disulfide‑linked homodimers of LAP and TGF‑ beta 1 remain non‑covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF‑ beta 1 complex (8‑10). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF‑ beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (9, 10). TGF‑ beta is activated from latency by pathways that include actions of the protease plasmin, matrix metalloproteases, thrombospondin 1 and a subset of integrins (10). Mature human TGF‑ beta 1 shares 100% aa identity with pig, dog and cow TGF‑ beta 1, and 99% aa identity with mouse, rat and horse TGF‑ beta 1. It demonstrates cross‑species activity (1). TGF‑ beta 1 signaling begins with high‑affinity binding to a type II ser/thr kinase receptor termed TGF‑ beta RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates a second ser/thr kinase receptor, TGF‑ beta RI (also called activin receptor‑like kinase (ALK) ‑5), or alternatively, ALK‑1. This complex phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription (3, 11, 12). Contributions of the accessory receptors betaglycan (also known as TGF‑ beta  RIII) and endoglin, or use of Smad‑independent signaling pathways, allow for disparate actions observed in response to TGF‑ beta in different contexts (11).
  1. Derynck, R. and K. Miyazono (2008) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 29.
  2. Dunker, N. and K. Krieglstein (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
  3. Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
  4. Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
  5. Lin, J.S. et al. (2006) Reproduction 132:179.
  6. Hinck, A.P. et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35:8517.
  7. Mittl, P.R.E. et al. (1996) Protein Sci. 5:1261.
  8. Derynck, R. et al. (1985) Nature 316:701.
  9. Miyazono, K. et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263:6407.
  10. Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
  11. de Caestecker, M. et al. (2004) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 15:1.
  12. Zuniga, J.E. et al. (2005) J. Mol. Biol. 354:1052.

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Publications for TGF-beta 1 (240-B)(518)

We have publications tested in 13 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Rat, Bovine, Canine, Chicken, Equine, Feline, Fish, Mink, N/A, Porcine, Rabbit.

We have publications tested in 7 applications: Bioassay, ELISA Standard, ELISA development, In Vivo, Standard, WB Ctrl, cell culture.

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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 518. Show All 518 Publications.
Publications using 240-B Applications Species
M Saxena, RKR Kalathur, M Neutzner, G Christofor PyMT-1099, a versatile murine cell model for EMT in breast cancer Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):12123. 2018 [PMID: 30108334] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
RJ Marsh, K Pfisterer, P Bennett, LM Hirvonen, M Gautel, GE Jones, S Cox Artifact-free high-density localization microscopy analysis Nat. Methods, 2018;0(0):. 2018 [PMID: 30061677] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
D Dvornikov, MA Schneider, S Ohse, M Szczygie?, I Titkova, M Rosenblatt, T Muley, A Warth, FJ Herth, H Dienemann, M Thomas, J Timmer, M Schilling, H Busch, M Boerries, M Meister, U Klingmülle Expression ratio of the TGF?-inducible gene MYO10 is prognostic for overall survival of squamous cell lung cancer patients and predicts chemotherapy response Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):9517. 2018 [PMID: 29934580] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
MR Conith, Y Hu, AJ Conith, MA Maginnis, JF Webb, RC Albertson Genetic and developmental origins of a unique foraging adaptation in a Lake Malawi cichlid genus Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2018;0(0):. 2018 [PMID: 29915062] (In Vivo, Fish) In Vivo Fish
FC Bach, AR Tellegen, M Beukers, A Miranda-Be, M Teunissen, WAM de Jong, SAH de Vries, LB Creemers, K Benz, BP Meij, K Ito, MA Tryfonidou Biologic canine and human intervertebral disc repair by notochordal cell-derived matrix: from bench towards bedside Oncotarget, 2018;9(41):26507-26526. 2018 [PMID: 29899873] (Bioassay, Canine) Bioassay Canine
YW Liao, CC Yu, PL Hsieh, YC Chang miR-200b ameliorates myofibroblast transdifferentiation in precancerous oral submucous fibrosis through targeting ZEB2 J. Cell. Mol. Med., 2018;0(0):. 2018 [PMID: 29893466] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
A Kunita, S Morita, TU Irisa, A Goto, T Niki, D Takai, J Nakajima, M Fukayama MicroRNA-21 in cancer-associated fibroblasts supports�lung adenocarcinoma progression Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):8838. 2018 [PMID: 29892003] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Z Qin, GJ Fisher, JJ Voorhees, T Quan Actin cytoskeleton assembly regulates collagen production via TGF-? type II receptor in human skin fibroblasts J. Cell. Mol. Med., 2018;0(0):. 2018 [PMID: 29888864] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
F Ghodrati, M Mehrabian, D Williams, O Halgas, MEC Bourkas, JC Watts, EF Pai, G Schmitt-Ul The prion protein is embedded in a molecular environment that modulates transforming growth factor ? and integrin signaling Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):8654. 2018 [PMID: 29872131] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
Z Al Shareef, H Kardooni, V Murillo-Ga, G Domenici, E Stylianaki, JH Steel, M Rabano, I Gorroño-Et, I Zabalza, M dM Vivanco, J Waxman, RM Kypta Protective effect of stromal Dickkopf-3 in prostate cancer: opposing roles for TGFBI and ECM-1 Oncogene, 2018;0(0):. 2018 [PMID: 29858602] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Show All 518 Publications.

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TGF-beta 1 - a versatile signaling molecule with roles in development and disease
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family consists of a wide variety of signaling proteins with roles in development. TGF-beta signaling controls growth, differentiation, and immune responses and is often misregulated in cancer. TGF-beta...  Read full blog post.

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Gene Symbol TGFB1