Recombinant Human GM-CSF Protein


1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human GM-CSF was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 14 kDa.
Recombinant Human GM-CSF (Catalog # 215-IL) stimulates cell proliferation of theTF-1 human erythroleukemic cell line. The ED50 for this effect is 6-30 pg/mL.

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Applications Bioactivity

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Recombinant Human GM-CSF Protein Summary

Additional Information
A New and Improved rh GM-CSF is Now Available! It has a lower endotoxin specification and is CHO expressed!
Details of Functionality
Measured in a cell proliferation assay using TF‑1 human erythroleukemic cells. Kitamura, T. et al. (1989) J. Cell Physiol. 140:323. The ED50 for this effect is 6-30 pg/mL.
The specific activity of Recombinant Human GM-CSF is approximately 1.5 x 104 IU/μg, which is calibrated against human GM-CSF WHO International Standard (NIBSC code: 88/646).
E. coli-derived human GM-CSF protein
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
>97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Note
<1.0 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


Theoretical MW
14 kDa.
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
Read Publications using
215-GM in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
>97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human GM-CSF Protein

  • colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage)
  • Colony-stimulating factor
  • CSF
  • CSF2
  • GM-CSF
  • GMCSFgranulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
  • granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor
  • MGC131935
  • MGC138897
  • molgramostin
  • sargramostim


GM‑CSF was initially characterized as a factor that can support the in vitro colony formation of granulocyte‑macrophage progenitors. It is also a growth factor for erythroid, megakaryocyte, and eosinophil progenitors. GM‑CSF is produced by a number of different cell types (including T cells, B cells, macrophages, mast cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and adipocytes) in response to cytokine or inflammatory stimuli. On mature hematopoietic cells, GM‑CSF is a survival factor for and activates the effector functions of granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, and eosinophils (1, 2). GM‑CSF promotes a Th1 biased immune response, angiogenesis, allergic inflammation, and the development of autoimmunity (3‑5). It shows clinical effectiveness in ameliorating chemotherapy‑induced neutropenia, and GM‑CSF transfected tumor cells are utilized as cancer vaccines (6, 7). The 22 kDa glycosylated GM‑CSF, similar to IL‑3 and IL‑5, is a cytokine with a core of four bundled
alpha -helices (8‑12). Mature human GM‑CSF shares 63%‑70% amino acid sequence identity with canine, feline, porcine, and rat GM‑CSF and 54% with mouse GM‑CSF. GM‑CSF exerts its biological effects through a heterodimeric receptor complex composed of GM‑CSF R alpha /CD116 and the signal transducing common beta  chain (CD131) which is also a component of the high‑affinity receptors for IL‑3 and IL‑5 (13, 14). In addition, GM‑CSF binds a naturally occurring soluble form of GM‑CSF R alpha (15). Human GM‑CSF is active on canine and feline cells but not on murine cells (16‑18).
  1. Martinez-Moczygemba, M. and D.P. Huston (2003) J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 112:653.
  2. Barreda, D.R. et al. (2004) Dev. Comp. Immunol. 28:509.
  3. Eksioglu, E.A. et al. (2007) Exp. Hematol. 35:1163.
  4. Cao, Y. (2007) J. Clin. Invest. 117:2362.
  5. Fleetwood, A.J. et al. (2005) Crit. Rev. Immunol. 25:405.
  6. Heuser, M. et al. (2007) Semin. Hematol. 44:148.
  7. Hege, K.M. et al. (2006) Int. Rev. Immunol. 25:321.
  8. Kaushansky, K. et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31:1881.
  9. Diederichs, K. et al. (1991) Science 254:1779. 
  10. Cantrell, M.A. et al. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 82:6250.
  11. Lee, F. et al. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 82:4360.
  12. Wong, G.G. et al. (1985) Science 228:810.
  13. Onetto-Pothier, N. et al. (1990) Blood 75:59.
  14. Hayashida, K. et al. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 87:9655.
  15. Pelley, J.L. et al. (2007) Exp. Hematol. 35:1483.
  16. Hogge, G.S. et al. (1990) Cancer Gene Ther. 6:26.
  17. Sprague, W.S. et al. (2005) J. Comp. Pathol. 133:136.
  18. Shanafelt, A.B. et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266:13804.

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Publications for GM-CSF (215-GM)(213)

We have publications tested in 7 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Rat, Canine, Primate - Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating Monkey or Cynomolgus Macaque), Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque), Rabbit.

We have publications tested in 5 applications: Bioassay, Cell Culture Substrate, Ctrl, In Vivo, cell culture.

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Primate - Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating Monkey or Cynomolgus Macaque)
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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 213. Show All 213 Publications.
Publications using 215-GM Applications Species
AS Hansen, M Biltoft, B Bundgaard, AB Bohn, BK Møller, P Höllsberg CD46 activation induces distinct CXCL-10 response in monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells Cytokine, 2018;0(0):. 2018 [PMID: 29980471] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
J Zhang, Z Xiang, PA Malaviarac, Y Yan, NJ Baltz, PD Emanuel, YL Liu PTEN is indispensable for cells to respond to MAPK inhibitors in myeloid leukemia Cell. Signal., 2018;50(0):72-79. 2018 [PMID: 29964149] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
ME Kirkling, U Cytlak, CM Lau, KL Lewis, A Resteu, A Khodadadi-, CW Siebel, H Salmon, M Merad, A Tsirigos, M Collin, V Bigley, B Reizis Notch Signaling Facilitates In�Vitro Generation of Cross-Presenting Classical Dendritic Cells Cell Rep, 2018;23(12):3658-3672.e6. 2018 [PMID: 29925006] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
H Nakano, Y Kirino, M Takeno, K Higashitan, H Nagai, R Yoshimi, Y Yamaguchi, I Kato, I Aoki, H Nakajima GWAS-identified CCR1 and IL10 loci contribute to M1 macrophage-predominant inflammation in Beh�et&#039;s disease Arthritis Res. Ther., 2018;20(1):124. 2018 [PMID: 29895319] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
H Chu, CM Chan, X Zhang, Y Wang, S Yuan, J Zhou, RK Au-Yeung, KH Sze, D Yang, H Shuai, Y Hou, C Li, X Zhao, VK Poon, SP Leung, ML Yeung, J Yan, G Lu, DY Jin, GF Gao, JF Chan, KY Yuen Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and bat coronavirus HKU9 both can utilize GRP78 for attachment onto host cells J. Biol. Chem., 2018;0(0):. 2018 [PMID: 29887526] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
JA Marwick, R Mills, O Kay, K Michail, J Stephen, AG Rossi, I Dransfield, N Hirani Neutrophils induce macrophage anti-inflammatory reprogramming by suppressing NF-?B activation Cell Death Dis, 2018;9(6):665. 2018 [PMID: 29867198] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
L Ladislau, DM Portilho, T Courau, A Solares-Pé, E Negroni, J Lainé, D Klatzmann, A Bonomo, Y Allenbach, O Benveniste, I Riederer, W Savino, V Mouly, G Butler-Bro, CF Benjamim Activated dendritic cells modulate proliferation and differentiation of human myoblasts Cell Death Dis, 2018;9(5):551. 2018 [PMID: 29748534] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
LB Crawford, JH Kim, D Collins-Mc, BJ Lee, I Landais, C Held, JA Nelson, AD Yurochko, P Caposio Human Cytomegalovirus Encodes a Novel FLT3 Receptor Ligand Necessary for Hematopoietic Cell Differentiation and Viral Reactivation MBio, 2018;9(2):. 2018 [PMID: 29691342] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
D Kishimoto, Y Kirino, M Tamura, M Takeno, Y Kunishita, K Takase-Min, H Nakano, I Kato, K Nagahama, R Yoshimi, K Igarashi, I Aoki, H Nakajima Dysregulated heme oxygenase-1low M2-like macrophages augment lupus nephritis via Bach1 induced by type I interferons Arthritis Res. Ther., 2018;20(1):64. 2018 [PMID: 29636091] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
A Alflen, N Stadler, P Aranda Lop, D Teschner, M Theobald, G He beta, MP Radsak Idelalisib impairs TREM-1 mediated neutrophil inflammatory responses Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):5558. 2018 [PMID: 29615799] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Show All 213 Publications.

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Gene Symbol CSF2