Recombinant Human GM-CSF Protein


1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human GM-CSF was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 14 kDa.
Recombinant Human GM-CSF (Catalog # 215-IL) stimulates cell proliferation of theTF-1 human erythroleukemic cell line. The ED50 for this effect is 6-30 pg/mL.

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Reactivity HuSpecies Glossary
Applications Bioactivity

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Recombinant Human GM-CSF Protein Summary

Additional Information
A New and Improved rhGM-CSF is Now Available! It has a lower endotoxin spec and is CHO expressed!
New Product 7954-GM
Details of Functionality
Measured in a cell proliferation assay using TF-1 human erythroleukemic cells. Kitamura, T. et al. (1989) J. Cell Physiol. 140:323. The ED 50 for this effect is 6-30 pg/mL. The specific activity of Recombinant Human GM-CSF is approximately 1.5 x 10 4 IU/μg, which is calibrated against human GM-CSF WHO International Standard (NIBSC code: 88/646).
E. coli-derived human GM-CSF protein Ala18-Glu144
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
>97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Note
<1.0 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


Theoretical MW
14 kDa.
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
Read Publications using
215-GM in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 degreesC as supplied. 1 month, 2 to 8 degreesC under sterile conditions after reconstitution. 3 months, -20 to -70 degreesC under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
>97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human GM-CSF Protein

  • colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage)
  • Colony-stimulating factor
  • CSF
  • CSF2
  • GM-CSF
  • GMCSFgranulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
  • granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor
  • MGC131935
  • MGC138897
  • molgramostin
  • sargramostim


GM-CSF was initially characterized as a factor that can support the in vitro colony formation of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. It is also a growth factor for erythroid, megakaryocyte, and eosinophil progenitors. GM-CSF is produced by a number of different cell types (including T cells, B cells, macrophages, mast cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and adipocytes) in response to cytokine or inflammatory stimuli. On mature hematopoietic cells, GM-CSF is a survival factor for and activates the effector functions of granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, and eosinophils (1, 2). GM-CSF promotes a Th1 biased immune response, angiogenesis, allergic inflammation, and the development of autoimmunity (3-5). It shows clinical effectiveness in ameliorating chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and GM-CSF transfected tumor cells are utilized as cancer vaccines (6, 7). The 22 kDa glycosylated GM-CSF, similar to IL-3 and IL-5, is a cytokine with a core of four bundled alpha -helices (8-12). Mature human GM-CSF shares 63%-70% amino acid sequence identity with canine, feline, porcine, and rat GM-CSF and 54% with mouse GM-CSF. GM-CSF exerts its biological effects through a heterodimeric receptor complex composed of GM-CSF R alpha /CD116 and the signal transducing common beta chain (CD131) which is also a component of the high-affinity receptors for IL-3 and IL-5 (13, 14). In addition, GM-CSF binds a naturally occurring soluble form of GM-CSF R alpha (15). Human GM-CSF is active on canine and feline cells but not on murine cells (16-18).
  1. Martinez-Moczygemba, M. and D.P. Huston (2003) J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 112:653.
  2. Barreda, D.R. et al. (2004) Dev. Comp. Immunol. 28:509.
  3. Eksioglu, E.A. et al. (2007) Exp. Hematol. 35:1163.
  4. Cao, Y. (2007) J. Clin. Invest. 117:2362.
  5. Fleetwood, A.J. et al. (2005) Crit. Rev. Immunol. 25:405.
  6. Heuser, M. et al. (2007) Semin. Hematol. 44:148.
  7. Hege, K.M. et al. (2006) Int. Rev. Immunol. 25:321.
  8. Kaushansky, K. et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31:1881.
  9. Diederichs, K. et al. (1991) Science 254:1779. 
  10. Cantrell, M.A. et al. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 82:6250.
  11. Lee, F. et al. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 82:4360.
  12. Wong, G.G. et al. (1985) Science 228:810.
  13. Onetto-Pothier, N. et al. (1990) Blood 75:59.
  14. Hayashida, K. et al. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 87:9655.
  15. Pelley, J.L. et al. (2007) Exp. Hematol. 35:1483.
  16. Hogge, G.S. et al. (1990) Cancer Gene Ther. 6:26.
  17. Sprague, W.S. et al. (2005) J. Comp. Pathol. 133:136.
  18. Shanafelt, A.B. et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266:13804.

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Publications for GM-CSF (215-GM)(207)

We have publications tested in 7 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Rat, Canine, Primate - Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating Monkey or Cynomolgus Macaque), Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque), Rabbit.

We have publications tested in 5 applications: Bioassay, Cell Culture Substrate, Ctrl, In Vivo, cell culture.

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In Vivo
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Primate - Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating Monkey or Cynomolgus Macaque)
Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 207. Show All 207 Publications.
Publications using 215-GM Applications Species
L Ladislau, DM Portilho, T Courau, A Solares-Pé, E Negroni, J Lainé, D Klatzmann, A Bonomo, Y Allenbach, O Benveniste, I Riederer, W Savino, V Mouly, G Butler-Bro, CF Benjamim Activated dendritic cells modulate proliferation and differentiation of human myoblasts Cell Death Dis, 2018;9(5):551. 2018 [PMID: 29748534] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
LB Crawford, JH Kim, D Collins-Mc, BJ Lee, I Landais, C Held, JA Nelson, AD Yurochko, P Caposio Human Cytomegalovirus Encodes a Novel FLT3 Receptor Ligand Necessary for Hematopoietic Cell Differentiation and Viral Reactivation MBio, 2018;9(2):. 2018 [PMID: 29691342] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
D Kishimoto, Y Kirino, M Tamura, M Takeno, Y Kunishita, K Takase-Min, H Nakano, I Kato, K Nagahama, R Yoshimi, K Igarashi, I Aoki, H Nakajima Dysregulated heme oxygenase-1low M2-like macrophages augment lupus nephritis via Bach1 induced by type I interferons Arthritis Res. Ther., 2018;20(1):64. 2018 [PMID: 29636091] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
A Alflen, N Stadler, P Aranda Lop, D Teschner, M Theobald, G He beta, MP Radsak Idelalisib impairs TREM-1 mediated neutrophil inflammatory responses Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):5558. 2018 [PMID: 29615799] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
X Chen, S Hao, Z Zhao, J Liu, Q Shao, F Wang, D Sun, Y He, W Gao, H Mao Interleukin 35: Inhibitory regulator in monocyte-derived dendritic cell maturation and activation Cytokine, 2018;108(0):43-52. 2018 [PMID: 29571039] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
T Kato, T Matsuda, Y Ikeda, JH Park, M Leisegang, S Yoshimura, T Hikichi, M Harada, M Zewde, S Sato, K Hasegawa, K Kiyotani, Y Nakamura Effective screening of T cells recognizing neoantigens and construction of T-cell receptor-engineered T cells Oncotarget, 2018;9(13):11009-11019. 2018 [PMID: 29541393] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
HD Chae, N Cox, GV Dahl, NJ Lacayo, KL Davis, S Capolicchi, M Smith, KM Sakamoto Niclosamide suppresses acute myeloid leukemia cell proliferation through inhibition of CREB-dependent signaling pathways Oncotarget, 2018;9(4):4301-4317. 2018 [PMID: 29435104] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
D Wang, XF Huang, B Hong, XT Song, L Hu, M Jiang, B Zhang, H Ning, Y Li, C Xu, X Lou, B Li, Z Yu, J Hu, J Chen, F Yang, H Gao, G Ding, L Liao, L Rollins, L Jones, SY Chen, H Chen Efficacy of intracellular immune checkpoint-silenced DC vaccine JCI Insight, 2018;3(3):. 2018 [PMID: 29415891] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
YJ Choi, SJ Park, YS Park, HS Park, KM Yang, K Heo EpCAM peptide-primed dendritic cell vaccination confers significant anti-tumor immunity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells PLoS ONE, 2018;13(1):e0190638. 2018 [PMID: 29298343] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
C Ge, R Li, H Song, T Geng, J Yang, Q Tan, L Song, Y Wang, Y Xue, Z Li, S Dong, Z Zhang, N Zhang, J Guo, L Hua, S Chen, X Song Phase I clinical trial of a novel autologous modified-DC vaccine in patients with resected NSCLC BMC Cancer, 2017;17(1):884. 2017 [PMID: 29268708] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Show All 207 Publications.

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Gene Symbol CSF2