Proinsulin was detected in immersion fixed beta TC-6 mouse beta cell insulinoma cell line using Mouse Anti-Human/Mouse Proinsulin Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB13361) at 10 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. ...read more
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
Protein A or G purified from hybridoma culture supernatant
Reconstitute at 0.5 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.
Alternate Names for Proinsulin Antibody (253627)
Proinsulin is synthesized as a single chain, 110 amino acid (aa) preproprecursor that contains a 24 aa signal sequence and an 86 aa proinsulin propeptide. Following removal of the signal peptide, the proinsulin peptide undergoes further proteolysis to generate mature insulin, a 51 aa disulfide-linked dimer that consists of a 30 aa B chain (aa 25‑54) bound to a 21 aa A chain (aa 90‑110). The 34 aa intervening peptide (aa 55‑89) that connects the B and A chains is termed the C-peptide. Human proinsulin shares 84% and 80% aa sequence identity with rat and bovine proinsulin, respectively. Most of the sequence variation between species occurs in the region of the C-peptide (1). This peptide generates a structural conformation that allows for the correct formation of the intrachain disulphide bonds (1). Insulin is a molecule that facilitates the cellular uptake of glucose. This is accomplished by regulating the appearance of membrane glucose transporters. Low insulin levels or lack of insulin are associated with type 2 and type 1 diabetes mellitus, respectively. These conditions are associated with an increased risk for microvascular complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy (3). Proinsulin also circulates, but its physiologic role is less well understood. It does possess about 25% of the activity of mature insulin, but it would seem unlikely to be a natural substitute for insulin (4). In type 2 diabetes, an elevated proinsulin to insulin ratio in the circulation is a well-known abnormality (5‑9). Perhaps this abnormality represents either compromised proteolytic processing or a general inability to process increased levels of insulin precursor (5). In any event, proinsulin will stimulate amylin secretion by beta -cells, and amyloid formation in pancreatic islets that promotes decreased beta cell function (10). Studies also suggest that fasting serum proinsulin may be a better predictor of future type 2 diabetes than fasting insulin levels in obese children (11).
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Barbetti, F. et al. (1990) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 71:164.
Forst, T. et al. (2008) Exp. Diabetes Res. 2008:176245.
Steffes, M.W. et al. (2003) Diabetes Care 26:832.
Roder, M.E. et al. (1999) Diabetes Care 22:609.
Porte, D. Jr. (1991) Diabetes 40:166.
Gordon, P. et al. (1974) Diabetologia 34:483.
Saad, M.F. et al. (1990) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 70:1247.
Roder, M.E. et al. (1995) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80:2359.
Dworacka, M. et al. (2006) Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 44:14.
Kamoda, T. et al. (2006) Diabetes Obes. Metab. 8:192.
This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt.
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PRODUCT AVAILABILITY: Update Regarding the Evolving COVID-19 Situation
Bio-Techne appreciates the critical role that you and our products and services play in research efforts to further scientific innovation and discovery. We are continually assessing our manufacturing and supplier capabilities during the COVID-19 situation and are implementing precautionary measures to ensure uninterrupted supply of products and services. Currently, and as we abide by local shelter in place orders across the world, we are fully operational and do not anticipate any material supply disruptions across our Bio-Techne brands and product lines. As the situation evolves, our goal is to utilize preventive measures to reduce the threat that COVID-19 poses to our ability to meet the needs of our customers globally.