Human FGF-21 Quantikine ELISA Kit

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Summary
Reactivity HuSpecies Glossary
Applications ELISA
Conjugate
HRP

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Human FGF-21 Quantikine ELISA Kit Summary

Background
The Quantikine Human FGF-21 Immunoassay is a 4.5 hour solid-phase ELISA designed to measure human FGF-21 in cell culture supernates, serum, and plasma. It contains E. coli-expressed recombinant human FGF-21 and has been shown to accurately quantitate the recombinant factor. Results obtained using natural human FGF-21 showed linear curves that were parallel to the standard curves obt...ained using the Quantikine kit standards. These results indicate that this kit can be used to determine relative mass values for naturally occurring human FGF-21.
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Specificity
Natural and recombinant human FGF-21
Source
N/A
Assay Type
Solid Phase Sandwich ELISA
Inter-Assay
See PDF Datasheet for details
Intra-Assay
See PDF Datasheet for details
Spike Recovery
See PDF Datasheet for details
Sample Volume
See PDF Datasheet for details
Gene
FGF21

Applications/Dilutions

Dilutions
  • ELISA
Application Notes
No significant interference observed with available related molecules.
Publications
Read Publications using DF2100.

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Storage
Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.

Notes

This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Human FGF-21 Quantikine ELISA Kit

  • FGF21
  • FGF-21
  • fibroblast growth factor 21

Background

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is a member of the FGF gene family, which contains 22 mammalian members. Based on its structure, it is further classified as a member of the FGF-19 subfamily, which also includes FGF-19 and FGF-23 (1-4). FGF family members contain a 120 amino acid (aa) core FGF domain that exhibits a beta -trefoil structure. FGF-19 subfamily members, unlike other FGFs, lack one strand of the beta -trefoil and bind poorly to extracellular matrix molecules such as heparin (3). They are consequently more diffusible than other FGFs and are considered endocrine rather than paracrine (1-4). All three subfamily members impact some aspect of metabolism; all three are induced by a nuclear receptor heterodimer that includes RXR (retinoid X receptor), and all three bind FGF receptors (FGF R) indirectly through co-receptors of the klotho family (5-9). FGF-21 binds to beta -Klotho via its C-terminal sequence. This binding, along with amino acids at the N-terminus, is required for signaling through FGF R (7, 8). FGF-21 is selective for FGF R1 isoform 1c, with varying reports of using isoforms 2c or 3c (10-12). Presence of the required klotho and FGF R family members determines tissue specificity of FGF-19 subfamily members, and thus concentrates FGF-21 activity within adipose tissue (3, 9-11). Mature human FGF-21 shares 81% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat FGF-21. 
FGF-21 is produced by hepatocytes in response to free fatty acid (FFA) stimulation of a PPAR alpha /RXR dimeric complex (4, 13-15). This situation occurs during starvation, diabetic ketosis, or following the ingestion of a high-fat/low-carbohydrate or ketogenic diet (5, 14-16). Upon FGF-21 secretion, white adipose tissue is induced to release FFAs from triglyceride stores. Once FFAs reach the hepatocytes, they are oxidized and reduced to acetyl-CoA (16). The acetyl-CoA is recombined into 4-carbon ketone bodies (acetoacetate and beta -hydroxybutyrate), released, and transported to peripheral tissues for energy generation (5, 15, 16). FGF-21 production is also induced upon differentiation of human or mouse fibroblasts to adipocytes (17, 18). In adipose tissue, FGF-21 induces glucose uptake by signaling in synergy with PPAR gamma to increase production of the glucose transporter, GLUT1 (10, 12, 19). 
FGF-21 production follows a circadian pattern in mice (20). It diffuses across the blood-brain barrier and this may facilitate induction of a state of torpor, or decreased activity, in response to increased FGF-21 (16, 21). These characteristics appear to induce a hibernation-like state during fasting and short days in winter (22). In diet-induced obese mice and mouse models of diabetes such as db/db and ob/ob, administration or transgenic overexpression of FGF-21 restores circulating glucose and triglyceride values to near normal and increases insulin sensitivity (5, 6, 14, 23, 24). In some of these states and in human obesity and type II diabetes, FGF-21 is already elevated prior to treatment, suggesting that resistance to FGF-21 is possible (17, 25, 26). Although FGF-21 administration corrects obesity in mice, it is unclear whether the same benefit would be seen in humans (2, 3, 17, 26-28).

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⚠ WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including N,N-Dimethylforamide, which is known to the State of California to cause cancer. For more information, go to www.P65Warnings.ca.gov.

Publications for FGF-21 (DF2100)(35)

We have publications tested in 2 confirmed species: Human, Mouse.


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Human
(33)
Mouse
(2)
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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 35. Show All 35 Publications.
Publications using DF2100 Applications Species
YS Cha, JS Chang, H Kim, KS Park Application of Mitochondrial and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Evaluation of Neurocognitive Prognosis Following Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Metabolites, 2022;12(3):. 2022 [PMID: 35323645] (Human) Human
JY Guo, HH Chen, WJ Lee, SC Chen, SD Lee, CY Chen Fibroblast Growth Factor 19 and Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Regulation in Obese Diabetics, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease after Gastric Bypass Nutrients, 2022;14(3):. 2022 [PMID: 35277004] (Human) Human
P Manka, S Sydor, JM Schänzer-O, M Brandenbur, J Best, R Vilchez-Va, A Link, D Heider, S Brodesser, A Figge, A Jähnert, JD Coombes, FJ Cubero, A Kahraman, MS Kim, J Kälsch, S Kinner, KN Faber, H Moshage, G Gerken, WK Syn, A Canbay, LP Bechmann A Potential Role for Bile Acid Signaling in Celiac Disease-Associated Fatty Liver Metabolites, 2022;12(2):. 2022 [PMID: 35208205] (Human) Human
K Nakanishi, C Ishibashi, S Ide, R Yamamoto, M Nishida, I Nagatomo, T Moriyama, K Yamauchi-T Serum FGF21 levels are altered by various factors including lifestyle behaviors in male subjects Scientific Reports, 2021;11(1):22632. 2021 [PMID: 34799626] (Human) Human
C Kang, Q Qiao, Q Tong, Q Bai, C Huang, R Fan, H Wang, K Kaliannan, J Wang, J Xu Effects of exenatide on urinary albumin in overweight/obese patients with T2DM: a randomized clinical trial Scientific Reports, 2021;11(1):20062. 2021 [PMID: 34625598] (Human) Human
N Vrachnis, S Argyridis, D Vrachnis, N Antonakopo, G Valsamakis, C Iavazzo, D Zygouris, N Salakos, A Rodolakis, N Vlahos, G Mastorakos, P Drakakis, Z Iliodromit Increased Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) Concentration in Early Second Trimester Amniotic Fluid and Its Association with Fetal Growth Metabolites, 2021;11(9):. 2021 [PMID: 34564397] (Human) Human
M Alonso, C Zabala, S Mansilla, L De Brun, J Martínez, M Garau, G Rivas, C Acosta, D Lens, A Cerisola, M Graña, H Naya, R Puentes, L Spangenber, V Raggio, A Lemes, L Castro, C Quijano Blood cell respiration rates and mtDNA copy number: A promising tool for the diagnosis of mitochondrial disease Mitochondrion, 2021;61(0):31-43. 2021 [PMID: 34536563] (Human) Human
F Hoel, A Hoel, IK Pettersen, IG Rekeland, K Risa, K Alme, K Sørland, A Fosså, K Lien, I Herder, HL Thürmer, ME Gotaas, C Schäfer, RK Berge, K Sommerfelt, HP Marti, O Dahl, O Mella, Ø Fluge, KJ Tronstad A map of metabolic phenotypes in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome JCI Insight, 2021;6(16):. 2021 [PMID: 34423789] (Human) Human
Y Tsuchiya, K Goto Myokine secretion following moderate-intensity endurance exercise under different environmental temperatures Cytokine, 2021;144(0):155553. 2021 [PMID: 34062449] (Human) Human
M Koz?owska, J Kortas, M ?ychowska, J Antosiewic, K ?uczek, S Perego, G Lombardi, E Ziemann Beneficial effects of whole-body cryotherapy on glucose homeostasis and amino acid profile are associated with a reduced myostatin serum concentration Scientific Reports, 2021;11(1):7097. 2021 [PMID: 33782504] (Human) Human
Show All 35 Publications.

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Bioinformatics

Gene Symbol FGF21