CD99 was detected in immersion fixed HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line using Goat Anti-Human CD99 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF3968) at 10 µg/mL for 3 hours at room ...read more
Human whole blood CD3+ lymphocytes were stained with Goat Anti-Human CD99 Antigen Affinity‑purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF3968, filled histogram) or control antibody (Catalog # AB-108-C, open histogram), ...read more
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.
Alternate Names for CD99 Antibody [Unconjugated]
antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 12E7, F21 and O13
CD99 antigenY homolog
MIC2 (monoclonal 12E7)
surface antigen MIC2
T-cell surface glycoprotein E2
CD99 (also named MIC2, E2 and thymic leukemia antigen) is the founding member of the CD99 family of molecules. The CD99 family contains four members; CD99, CD99L2, XG and the pseudogene CD99L1 (1, 2, 3). Native human CD99 is 32 kDa in size and exists as a type I transmembrane glycoprotein. This is referred to as the long, or type I isoform. It is synthesized as a 185 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 22 aa signal sequence, a 100 aa extracellular domain (ECD), a 25 aa transmembrane segment, and a 38 aa cytoplasmic region (4). The ECD contains no identifiable motifs, N‑linked glycosylation sites, or cysteine residues; it does possess sites for O-linked glycosylation. The cytoplasmic region, albeit short, does have signal transduction capability (5). There are apparently multiple isoforms for human CD99. One shows a 16 aa deletion in the ECD (aa 34‑49), a second shows a 38 aa deletion in the cytoplasmic region (aa 122‑159), and a third exhibits a three aa truncation at the C-terminus (6, 7, 8). The best studied isoform shows an Asp‑Gly substitution for the C‑terminal 27 amino acids. This is referred to as the 28 kDa type II isoform (9). The type I and II isoforms have distinctive signal transduction pathways (FAK-src for type I; PI3K plus src-ERK1/2 for type II), and mediate clearly different biological outcomes (5, 9, 10). The two numbered isoforms may or may not co‑exist on the same cells. Peripheral T cells have only the long isoform, while double-positive thymocytes express both isotypes. What is unclear is the monomeric vs. dimeric status of CD99. In mouse, CD99 reportedly forms disulfide-linked homodimers (11). In human, however, CD99 is reportedly monomeric if only a type I isoform, and a covalent heterodimer if co‑expressing type I and II isoforms (12, 13). Cells known to express CD99 include fibroblasts, neutrophils, T cells, double-positive thymocytes, CD34+ stem cells, monocytes and endothelial cells (2, 12, 14, 15). Homophilic interaction between CD99 on the neutrophil and CD99 on the endothelial cell regulates the transendothelial migration of neutrophils during inflammation (16). Human CD99 is only 48% aa identical to mouse CD99 (17).
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GenBank Accession # EAW98698.
GenBank Accession # EAW98699.
GenBank Accession # EAW98700.
Hahn, H-J. et al. (1997) J. Immunol. 159:2250.
Scotlandi, K. et al. (2007) Oncogene Apr 30; [Epub ahead of print].
Park, S.H. et al. (2005) Gene 353:177.
Schenkel, A.R. et al. (2002) Nat. Immunol. 3:143.
Alberti, I. et al. (2002) FASEB J. 16:1946.
Imbert, A-M. et al. (2006) Blood 108:2578.
Dworzak, M.N. et al. (1994) Blood 83:415.
Lou, O. et al. (2007) J. Immunol. 178:1136
Shiratori, I. et al. (2004) J. Exp. Med. 199:525.
This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt.
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