Recombinant Human TL1A/TNFSF15 Protein


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Applications Bioactivity

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Recombinant Human TL1A/TNFSF15 Protein Summary

Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to induce apoptosis of TF‑1 human erythroleukemic cells. Migone, T. et al. (2002) Immunity 16:479. The ED50 for this effect is 4-20 ng/mL.
E. coli-derived human TL1A/TNFSF15 protein
Leu72-Leu251, with an N-terminal Met
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
>90%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Note
<1.0 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


  • Bioactivity
Theoretical MW
21 kDa (monomer).
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
Read Publications using
1319-TL in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
>90%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human TL1A/TNFSF15 Protein

  • MGC129934
  • MGC129935
  • TL1A
  • TL1Vascular endothelial cell growth inhibitor
  • TNF superfamily ligand TL1A
  • TNFSF15
  • tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 15
  • tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 15
  • vascular endothelial growth inhibitor-192A
  • VEGI
  • VEGI192A
  • VEGITNF ligand-related molecule 1


TL1A is a type II transmembrane protein belonging to the TNF superfamily and has been designated TNF superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15). Human TL1A is a 251 aa protein consisting of a 35 aa cytoplasmic domain, a 24 aa transmembrane region and a 192 aa C-terminal extracellular domain. It is a longer variant of the previously cloned TL1 (also known as VEGI) that is possibly a cloning artifact. TL1A is predominantly expressed in endothelial cells and its expression is inducible by TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha . TL1A binds with high affinity to death receptor 3 (DR3), which is now designated TNF receptor superfamily member 25 (TNFRSF25). DR3 was formerly designated TNFRSF12 when it was thought to be the receptor for TWEAK/TNFSF12. DR3 is expressed primarily on activated T cells. Depending on the cell context, ligation of DR3 by TL1A can trigger one of two signaling pathways, activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa-B or activation of caspases and apoptosis. On primary T cells, TL1A induces NF-kappa-B activation and a costimulatory signal to increase IL-2 responsiveness and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. However, in a tumor cell line, TF-1, TL1A has been shown to induce caspase activity and apoptosis. These effects of TL1A are blocked by the secreted, soluble decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), also known as TR6 and TNFRSF6B, which compete with DR3 for binding to TL1A. Consistent with the observed in vitro activities, TL1A promotes ex vivo splenocyte expansion and enhances in vivo graft-versus-host-response.

  1. Migone, T.S. et al. (2002) Immunity 16:479.

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Publications for TL1A/TNFSF15 (1319-TL)(13)

We have publications tested in 3 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Yeast.

We have publications tested in 3 applications: Binding Assay, Bioassay, Flow Cytometry.

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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 13. Show All 13 Publications.
Publications using 1319-TL Applications Species
J Fritsch, J Frankenhei, L Marischen, T Vadasz, A Troeger, S Rose-John, D Schmidt-Ar, W Schneider- Roles for ADAM17 in TNF-R1 Mediated Cell Death and Survival in Human U937 and Jurkat Cells Cells, 2021-11-10;10(11):. 2021-11-10 [PMID: 34831323] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
B Oriol-Tord, A Olvera, C Duran-Cast, A Llano, B Mothe, M Massanella, J Dalmau, C Ganoza, J Sanchez, ML Calle, B Clotet, J Martinez-P, E Negredo, J Blanco, D Hartigan-O, C Brander, M Ruiz-Riol TL1A-DR3 Plasma Levels Are Predictive of HIV-1 Disease Control, and DR3 Costimulation Boosts HIV-1-Specific T Cell Responses J Immunol, 2020-11-11;0(0):. 2020-11-11 [PMID: 33177161] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
K Landgraf, N Klöting, M Gericke, N Maixner, E Guiu-Jurad, M Scholz, AV Witte, F Beyer, JT Schwartze, M Lacher, A Villringer, P Kovacs, A Rudich, M Blüher, W Kiess, A Körner The Obesity-Susceptibility Gene TMEM18 Promotes Adipogenesis through Activation of PPARG Cell Rep, 2020-10-20;33(3):108295. 2020-10-20 [PMID: 33086065] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
A Sattler, LG Thiel, AH Ruhm, N Souidi, M Seifert, G Herberth, K Kotsch The TL1A-DR3 Axis Selectively Drives Effector Functions in Human MAIT Cells J. Immunol., 2019-10-18;0(0):. 2019-10-18 [PMID: 31628153] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
T Leng, HD Akther, CP Hackstein, K Powell, T King, M Friedrich, Z Christofor, S McCuaig, M Neyazi, CV Arancibia-, J Hagel, F Powrie, RS Peres, V Millar, D Ebner, R Lamichhane, J Ussher, TSC Hinks, E Marchi, C Willberg, P Klenerman TCR and Inflammatory Signals Tune Human MAIT Cells to Exert Specific Tissue Repair and Effector Functions Cell Rep, 2019-09-17;28(12):3077-3091.e5. 2019-09-17 [PMID: 31533032] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
I Levin, M Zaretsky, A Aharoni Directed evolution of a soluble human DR3 receptor for the inhibition of TL1A induced cytokine secretion PLoS ONE, 2017-03-09;12(3):e0173460. 2017-03-09 [PMID: 28278297] (Bioassay, Flow Cytometry, Human, Yeast) Bioassay, Flow Cytometry Human, Yeast
PGE2 is a direct and robust mediator of anion/fluid secretion by human intestinal epithelial cells Sci Rep, 2016-11-09;6(0):36795. 2016-11-09 [PMID: 27827428] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Longman R, Diehl G, Victorio D, Huh J, Galan C, Miraldi E, Swaminath A, Bonneau R, Scherl E, Littman D CX(3)CR1(+) mononuclear phagocytes support colitis-associated innate lymphoid cell production of IL-22. J Exp Med, 2014-07-14;211(8):1571-83. 2014-07-14 [PMID: 25024136] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Zhou M, Liu R, Su D, Feng X, Li X TL1A increased the differentiation of peripheral Th17 in rheumatoid arthritis. Cytokine, 2014-05-13;69(1):125-30. 2014-05-13 [PMID: 24832108] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Liu , Cui, Li , Xing-Xia, Gao , Wei, Liu , Wen, Liu , De-Shan Progranulin-derived Atsttrin directly binds to TNFRSF25 (DR3) and inhibits TNF-like ligand 1A (TL1A) activity. PLoS ONE, 2014-03-20;9(3):e92743. 2014-03-20 [PMID: 24651300] (Binding Assay, Bioassay, Human, Mouse) Binding Assay, Bioassay Human, Mouse
Show All 13 Publications.

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Gene Symbol TNFSF15