Recombinant Human Proinsulin Protein, CF


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Product Details

Reactivity HuSpecies Glossary
Applications Bioactivity

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Recombinant Human Proinsulin Protein, CF Summary

Details of Functionality
Measured in a serum-free cell proliferation assay using MCF‑7 human breast cancer cells. Karey, K.P. et al. (1988) Cancer Research 48:4083. The ED50 for this effect is 0.15-0.75 μg/mL.
E. coli-derived human Proinsulin protein
Phe25-Asn110, with an N-terminal Met, 6-His tag and Lys
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
>95%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
Endotoxin Note
<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


Theoretical MW
10.5 kDa.
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
9 kDa, reducing conditions
Read Publications using
1336-PN in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
>95%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human Proinsulin Protein, CF

  • IDDM2
  • ILPR
  • insulin
  • IRDN
  • MODY10
  • Proinsulin


Proinsulin is synthesized as a single chain, 110 amino acid (aa) preproprecursor that contains a 24 aa signal sequence and an 86 aa proinsulin propeptide. Following removal of the signal peptide, the proinsulin peptide undergoes further proteolysis to generate mature insulin, a 51 aa disulfide-linked dimer that consists of a 30 aa B chain (aa 25 - 54) bound to a 21 aa A chain (aa 90 - 110). The 34 aa intervening peptide (aa 55 - 89) that connects the B and A chains is termed the C-peptide. Human proinsulin shares 84% and 80% aa sequence identity with rat and bovine proinsulin, respectively. Most of the sequence variation between species occurs in the region of the C-peptide (1). This peptide generates a structural conformation that allows for the correct formation of the intrachain disulphide bonds (1). Insulin is a molecule that facilitates the cellular uptake of glucose. This is accomplished by regulating the appearance of membrane glucose transporters. Low insulin levels or lack of insulin are associated with type 2 and type 1 diabetes mellitus, respectively. These conditions are associated with an increased risk for microvascular complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy (3). Proinsulin also circulates, but its physiologic role is less well understood. It does possess about 25% of the activity of mature insulin, but it would seem unlikely to be a natural substitute for insulin (4). In type 2 diabetes, an elevated proinsulin to insulin ratio in the circulation is a well-known abnormality (5 - 9). Perhaps this abnormality represents either compromised proteolytic processing or a general inability to process increased levels of insulin precursor (5). In any event, proinsulin will stimulate amylin secretion by beta -cells, and amyloid formation in pancreatic islets that promotes decreased beta cell function (10). Studies also suggest that fasting serum proinsulin may be a better predictor of future type 2 diabetes than fasting insulin levels in obese children (11).

  1. Bell, G.I. et al. (1980) Nature 284:26.
  2. Barbetti, F. et al. (1990) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 71:164.
  3. Forst, T. et al. (2008) Exp. Diabetes Res. 2008:176245.
  4. Steffes, M.W. et al. (2003) Diabetes Care 26:832.
  5. Roder, M.E. et al. (1999) Diabetes Care 22:609.
  6. Porte, D. Jr. (1991) Diabetes 40:166.
  7. Gordon, P. et al. (1974) Diabetologia 34:483.
  8. Saad, M.F. et al. (1990) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 70:1247.
  9. Roder, M.E. et al. (1995) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80:2359.
  10. Dworacka, M. et al. (2006) Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 44:14.
  11. Kamoda, T. et al. (2006) Diabetes Obes. Metab. 8:192.

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Publications for Proinsulin (1336-PN)(6)

We have publications tested in 4 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Rat, N/A.

We have publications tested in 3 applications: Bioassay, ELISA Standard, In Vivo.

Filter By Application
ELISA Standard
In Vivo
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All Species
Showing Publications 1 - 6 of 6.
Publications using 1336-PN Applications Species
YJ Hsieh, KY Chien, IF Yang, IN Lee, CC Wu, TY Huang, JS Yu Oxidation of protein-bound methionine in Photofrin-photodynamic therapy-treated human tumor cells explored by methionine-containing peptide enrichment and quantitative proteomics approach Sci Rep, 2017;7(1):1370. 2017 [PMID: 28465586] (Bioassay, N/A) Bioassay N/A
Farino Z, Morgenstern T, Vallaghe J, Gregor N, Donthamsetti P, Harris P, Pierre N, Freyberg R, Charrier-Savournin F, Javitch J, Freyberg Z Development of a Rapid Insulin Assay by Homogenous Time-Resolved Fluorescence. PLoS ONE, 2016;11(2):e0148684. 2016 [PMID: 26849707] (ELISA Standard, Rat) ELISA Standard Rat
Rulifson I, Cao P, Miao L, Kopecky D, Huang L, White R, Samayoa K, Gardner J, Wu X, Chen K, Tsuruda T, Homann O, Baribault H, Yamane H, Carlson T, Wiltzius J, Li Y Identification of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide as a BACE2 Substrate. PLoS ONE, 2016;11(2):e0147254. 2016 [PMID: 26840340] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Mbongue J, Nicholas D, Zhang K, Kim N, Hamilton B, Larios M, Zhang G, Umezawa K, Firek A, Langridge W Induction of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase in human dendritic cells by a cholera toxin B subunit-proinsulin vaccine. PLoS ONE, 2015;10(2):e0118562. 2015 [PMID: 25714914] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Nardi F, Lipina C, Magill D, Hage Hassan R, Hajduch E, Gray A, Hundal H Enhanced insulin sensitivity associated with provision of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle cells involves counter modulation of PP2A. PLoS ONE, 0;9(3):e92255. 0 [PMID: 24632852] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Wang, Yan, Shao, Juntang, Zaro, Jennica, Shen, Wei-Chia Proinsulin-transferrin fusion protein as a novel long-acting insulin analog for the inhibition of hepatic glucose production. Diabetes, 2014;63(5):1779-88. 2014 [PMID: 24353179] (In Vivo, Mouse) In Vivo Mouse

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Gene Symbol INS