Recombinant Human IL-15 Protein, CF


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Recombinant Human IL-15 Protein, CF Summary

Details of Functionality
Measured in a cell proliferation assay using MO7e human megakaryocytic leukemic cells. The ED50 for this effect is 0.3-2.6 ng/mL.
E. coli-derived human IL-15 protein
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
>97%, by SDS-PAGE with silver staining.
Endotoxin Note
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


  • Bioactivity
Theoretical MW
12.5 kDa.
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
10 kDa, under reducing conditions.
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247-ILB/CF in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
>97%, by SDS-PAGE with silver staining.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human IL-15 Protein, CF

  • IL15
  • IL-15
  • IL-15MGC9721
  • interleukin 15
  • interleukin-15


Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is a widely expressed 14 kDa cytokine that is structurally and functionally related to IL-2 and plays an important role in many immunological diseases (1, 2). Mature human IL-15 shares 70% amino acid sequence identity with mouse and rat IL-15. Alternative splicing generates isoforms of IL-15 with either a long or short signal peptide (LSP or SSP), and the SSP isoform is retained intracellularly (3). IL-15 binds with high affinity to IL-15 R alpha (4). It binds with lower affinity to a complex of IL-2 R beta and the common gamma chain ( gamma c) which are also subunits of the IL-2 receptor complex (5). IL-15 associates with IL-15 R alpha in the endoplasmic reticulum, and this complex is expressed on the cell surface (6).

The dominant mechanism of IL-15 action is known as transpresentation in which IL-15 and IL-15 R alpha are coordinately expressed on the surface of one cell and interact with complexes of IL-2 R beta / gamma c on adjacent cells (7). This enables cells to respond to IL-15 even if they do not express IL-15 R alpha (6). In human and mouse, soluble IL-15-binding forms of IL-15 R alpha can be generated by proteolytic shedding and bind up nearly all the IL-15 in circulation (8-10). Soluble IL-15 R alpha functions as an inhibitor that limits IL-15 action (4, 9). Ligation of membrane-associated IL-15/IL-15 R alpha complexes also induces reverse signaling that promotes activation of the IL-15/IL-15 R alpha expressing cells (11). IL-15 induces or enhances the differentiation, maintenance, or activation of multiple T cell subsets including NK, NKT, Th17, Treg, and CD8+ memory cells (12 - 16). An important component of these functions is the ability of IL‑15 to induce dendritic cell differentiation and inflammatory activation (11, 14). IL-15 exhibits anti-tumor activity independent of its actions on NK cells or CD8+ T cells (17). It also inhibits the deposition of lipid in adipocytes, and its circulating levels are decreased in obesity (18).

Immunotherapy treatment with recombinant IL-15 has the advantage of not stimulating Treg cells like IL-2 does but has the drawback of associated toxicity at higher doses. This has led to increased investigation on mitigating IL-15 toxicity and combination immunotherapy approaches using immune checkpoint inhibitors (19, 20). Preclinical and early clinical studies have shown the potential of also using IL-15 in combination with cancer vaccines to improve their anti-tumor response (20). IL-15 can also be used for the preconditioning of CAR T cells or for engineering cells to express IL-15 in vivo. Adoptive cell transfer of NK cells engineered to express CD19 and IL-15 were well tolerated in patients with CD19-positive cancers (20).

IL-15 can be used in combination with other cytokines like IL-21 to increase the efficiency of NK cell expansion and maturation in stem cell culture protocols (21). The combination of IL-15 with IL-7 also promotes expansion of early-differentiated CD8+ T cells in culture with the added benefit of decreasing Treg cell generation, unlike IL-2, for adoptive cell transfer in cancer immunotherapy (22). GMP IL-7 and GMP IL-15 are commonly used in combination for ex vivo expansion of T cells for cellular therapies.

  1. De Sabatino, A. et al. (2011) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 22:19.
  2. Grabstein, K. et al. (1994) Science 264:965.
  3. Tagaya, Y. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:14444.
  4. Giri, J.G. et al. (1995) EMBO J. 14:3654.
  5. Giri, J. et al. (1994) EMBO J. 13:2822.
  6. Dubois, S. et al. (2002) Immunity 17:537.
  7. Castillo, E.F. and K.S. Schluns (2012) Cytokine 59:479.
  8. Budagian, V. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279:40368.
  9. Mortier, E. et al. (2004) J. Immunol. 173:1681.
  10. Bergamaschi, C. et al. (2012) Blood 120:e1.
  11. Budagian, V. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279:42192.
  12. Mortier, E. et al. (2003) J. Exp. Med. 205:1213.
  13. Gordy, L.E. et al. (2011) J. Immunol. 187:6335.
  14. Harris, K.M. (2011) J. Leukoc. Biol. 90:727.
  15. Xia, J. et al. (2010) Clin. Immunol. 134:130.
  16. Schluns, K.S. et al. (2002) J. Immunol. 168:4827.
  17. Davies, E. et al. (2010) J. Leukoc. Biol. 88:529.
  18. Barra, N.G. et al. (2010) Obesity 18:1601.
  19. Xue, D. et al. (2021) Antibody Therapeutics. 4(2): 123-133.
  20. Wolfarth, A.A. et al. (2022) Immune Netw. 22(1): e5.
  21. Oberoi, P. et al. (2020). Cells. 9(911).
  22. Chamucero-Millares, J.A. et al. (2021) Cellular Immunology. 360(104257).

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Publications for IL-15 (247-ILB/CF)(163)

We have publications tested in 6 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Bovine, Primate - Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating Monkey or Cynomolgus Macaque), Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque), Xenograft.

We have publications tested in 7 applications: Bioassay, CAR-T (Bioassay), Cell Culture, ELISA (Standard), Flow Cytometry, In Vivo, Western Blot.

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Primate - Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating Monkey or Cynomolgus Macaque)
Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 163. Show All 163 Publications.
Publications using 247-ILB/CF Applications Species
Menevse, AN;Ammer, LM;Vollmann-Zwerenz, A;Kupczyk, M;Lorenz, J;Weidner, L;Hussein, A;Sax, J;M�hlbauer, J;Heuschneider, N;Rohrmus, C;Mai, LS;Jachnik, B;Stamova, S;Volpin, V;Durst, FC;Sorrentino, A;Xydia, M;Milenkovic, VM;Bader, S;Braun, FK;Wetzel, C;Albert, NL;Tonn, JC;Bartenstein, P;Proescholdt, M;Schmidt, NO;Linker, RA;Riemenschneider, MJ;Beckhove, P;Hau, P; TSPO acts as an immune resistance gene involved in the T cell mediated immune control of glioblastoma Acta neuropathologica communications 2023-05-08 [PMID: 37158962] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Mortales, C;Dutzar, B;Chen, J;Chen, A;Huard, J;Walkey, C;Swanson, R; NL-201 upregulates MHC-I expression and intratumoral TCR diversity, and demonstrates robust antitumor activity as monotherapy and in combination with PD-1 blockade Cancer immunology research 2023-05-02 [PMID: 37129946] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
T Tate, S Matsumoto, K Nemoto, M Leisegang, S Nagayama, K Obama, Y Nakamura, K Kiyotani Identification of T Cell Receptors Targeting a Neoantigen Derived from Recurrently Mutated FGFR3 Cancers, 2023-02-06;15(4):. 2023-02-06 [PMID: 36831375] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
YS Michaels, JM Edgar, MC Major, EL Castle, C Zimmerman, T Yin, A Hagner, C Lau, HH Hsu, MI Ibañez-Rio, LJ Durland, DJHF Knapp, PW Zandstra DLL4 and VCAM1 enhance the emergence of T cell-competent hematopoietic progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells Science Advances, 2022-08-24;8(34):eabn5522. 2022-08-24 [PMID: 36001668] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
F Nadeu, R Royo, R Massoni-Ba, H Playa-Albi, B Garcia-Tor, M Duran-Ferr, KJ Dawson, M Kulis, A Diaz-Navar, N Villamor, JL Melero, V Chapapriet, A Dueso-Barr, J Delgado, R Moia, S Ruiz-Gil, D Marchese, A Giró, N Verdaguer-, M Romo, G Clot, M Rozman, G Frigola, A Rivas-Delg, T Baumann, M Alcoceba, M González, F Climent, P Abrisqueta, J Castellví, F Bosch, M Aymerich, A Enjuanes, S Ruiz-Gaspà, A López-Guil, P Jares, S Beà, S Capella-Gu, JL Gelpí, N López-Biga, D Torrents, PJ Campbell, I Gut, D Rossi, G Gaidano, XS Puente, PM Garcia-Rov, D Colomer, H Heyn, F Maura, JI Martín-Sub, E Campo Detection of early seeding of Richter transformation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia Nature Medicine, 2022-08-11;28(8):1662-1671. 2022-08-11 [PMID: 35953718] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
K Hagemann, K Riecken, JM Jung, H Hildebrand, S Menzel, MJ Bunders, B Fehse, F Koch-Nolte, F Heinrich, S Peine, J Schulze Zu, TT Brehm, MM Addo, M Lütgehetma, M Altfeld Natural killer cell-mediated ADCC in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals and vaccine recipients European Journal of Immunology, 2022-04-22;0(0):. 2022-04-22 [PMID: 35416291] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
TH Chu, MC Vo, TJ Lakshmi, SY Ahn, M Kim, GY Song, DH Yang, JS Ahn, HJ Kim, SH Jung, JJ Lee Novel IL-15 dendritic cells have a potent immunomodulatory effect in immunotherapy of multiple myeloma Translational Oncology, 2022-04-09;20(0):101413. 2022-04-09 [PMID: 35413499] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
P Sekhri, DK Ledezma, A Shukla, EE Sweeney, R Fernandes The Thermal Dose of Photothermal Therapy Generates Differential Immunogenicity in Human Neuroblastoma Cells Cancers, 2022-03-11;14(6):. 2022-03-11 [PMID: 35326601] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
HC Liang, M Costanza, N Prutsch, MW Zimmerman, E Gurnhofer, IA Montes-Moj, BJ Abraham, N Prokoph, S Stoiber, S Tangermann, C Lobello, J Oppelt, I Anagnostop, T Hielscher, S Pervez, W Klapper, F Zammarchi, DA Silva, KC Garcia, D Baker, M Janz, N Schleussne, F Fend, Š Pospíšilov, A Janiková, J Wallwitz, D Stoiber, I Simonitsch, L Cerroni, S Pileri, L de Leval, D Sibon, V Fataccioli, P Gaulard, C Assaf, F Knörr, C Damm-Welk, W Woessmann, SD Turner, AT Look, S Mathas, L Kenner, O Merkel Super-enhancer-based identification of a BATF3/IL-2R-module reveals vulnerabilities in anaplastic large cell lymphoma Nature Communications, 2021-09-22;12(1):5577. 2021-09-22 [PMID: 34552066] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
M Pino, S Pereira Ri, A Pagliuzza, K Ghneim, A Khan, E Ryan, JL Harper, CT King, S Welbourn, L Micci, S Aldrete, KA Delman, T Stuart, M Lowe, JM Brenchley, CA Derdeyn, K Easley, RP Sekaly, N Chomont, M Paiardini, VC Marconi Increased homeostatic cytokines and stability of HIV-infected memory CD4 T-cells identify individuals with suboptimal CD4 T-cell recovery on-ART PloS Pathogens, 2021-08-27;17(8):e1009825. 2021-08-27 [PMID: 34449812] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Show All 163 Publications.

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Gene Symbol IL15