Recombinant Human GDF-15 (Human Cell-expressed) Protein, CF

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Recombinant Human GDF-15 (Catalog # 8146-GD/CF) activates SRE-SEAP reporter in HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells transfected with human c-Ret and human GFRAL. The ED50 for this effect is 0.2-2 ng/mL.

Product Details

Summary
Reactivity HuSpecies Glossary
Format
Carrier-Free

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Catalog# & Formulation Size Price

Recombinant Human GDF-15 (Human Cell-expressed) Protein, CF Summary

Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to activate SRE-SEAP reporter in HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells transfected with human c-Ret and human GFRAL. The ED50 for this effect is 0.2-2 ng/mL.
Source
Human embryonic kidney cell, HEK293-derived human GDF-15 protein
Ala197-Ile308
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Ala197
Structure / Form
Disulfide-linked homodimer
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
Gene
GDF15
Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Note
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.

Applications/Dilutions

Theoretical MW
12 kDa (monomer).
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
SDS-PAGE
12-14 kDa, reducing conditions

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Buffer
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in HCl.
Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 250 μg/mL in 4 mM HCl.

Notes

This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human GDF-15 (Human Cell-expressed) Protein, CF

  • GDF15
  • GDF-15
  • growth differentiation factor 15
  • growth/differentiation factor 15
  • Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1
  • MIC-1
  • MIC-1NSAID-activated gene 1 protein
  • MIC1Prostate differentiation factor
  • NAG-1
  • NAG-1NSAID-regulated gene 1 protein
  • NSAID (nonsteroidal inflammatory drug)-activated protein 1
  • PDF
  • PDFGDF-15
  • PLAB
  • PLABNRG-1
  • Placental bone morphogenetic protein
  • Placental TGF-beta
  • PTGF-beta
  • PTGFBPTGF-beta

Background

Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15), also called Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 1 (MIC-1), Placental Transforming Growth Factor beta, Prostate-derived Factor, and Placental Bone Morphogenetic Protein, is a divergent member of the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-beta ) superfamily (1, 2). Human GDF-15 shares 66% and 68% amino acid sequence identity with the rat and mouse proteins, respectively (3). GDF-15 is highly expressed in placenta and brain, and it is expressed at lower levels in kidney, pancreas, prostate, and colon. Similar to other TGF-beta family proteins, GDF-15 is synthesized as a large precursor protein that is cleaved at a dibasic cleavage site (RxxR) to release the mature protein. The C-terminal domain of GDF-15 contains seven characteristic conserved cysteine residues necessary for the formation of the cysteine knot and the single inter-chain disulfide bond (4, 5). Biologically active GDF-15 is a disulfide-linked homodimer of the mature protein. GDF‑15 has been shown to have various functions, including inhibition of Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-alpha ) production from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and the induction of cartilage formation (1, 6). GDF-15 also promotes neuronal survival, and hypothalamic expression of GDF-15 causes appetite suppression via modulation of neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin levels (7-10). GDF-15 is cardioprotective via inhibition of platelet activation, limiting atherosclerosis, promoting recovery following myocardial infarction, and regulating angiogenesis (11-15). Exposure of cardiomyocytes to GDF-15 results in Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation (16).

  1. Bootcov, M.R. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:11514.
  2. Fairlie, W.D. et al. (1999) J. Leukoc. Biol. 65:2.
  3. Bottner, M. et al. (1999) Gene 237:105.
  4. Fairlie, W.D. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:16911.
  5. Bauskin, A.R. et al. (2000) EMBO J. 19:2212.
  6. Paralkar, V.M. et al. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273:13760.
  7. Johnen, H. et al. (2007) Nat. Med. 13:1333.
  8. Strelau, J. et al. (2000) J. Neurosci. 20:8597.
  9. Breit, S.N. et al. (2011) Growth Factors 29:187.
  10. Strelau, J. et al. (2009) J. Neurosci. 29:13640.
  11. Whitson, R.J. et al. (2013) J. Cell. Biochem. 114:1424.
  12. Rossaint, J. et al. (2013) J. Thromb. Haemost. 11:335.
  13. Song, H. et al. (2012) Mol. Biol. Rep. 39:4017.
  14. Preusch, M.R. et al. (2013) Eur. J. Med. Res. 18:19.
  15. Kempf, T. et al. (2011) Nat. Med. 17:581.
  16. Xu, J. et al. (2006) Circ. Res. 98:342.

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Bioinformatics

Gene Symbol GDF15
Uniprot