Measured by its ability to inhibit Wnt induced TCF reporter activity in HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells. Recombinant Human Dkk-1 (Catalog # 5439-DK) inhibits a constant dose of 500 ng/mL of
Human Wnt‑3a (Catalog # 5036‑WN). The ED50 for this effect is 10-60 ng/mL.
Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf 21 (baculovirus)-derived human Dkk-1 protein Thr32-His266
<1.0 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
25.8 kDa. Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
>95%, by SDS-PAGE with silver staining.
Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.
Alternate Names for Recombinant Human Dkk-1 Protein
dickkopf (Xenopus laevis) homolog 1
dickkopf homolog 1 (Xenopus laevis)
dickkopf related protein-1
dickkopf-related protein 1
Dickkopf related protein 1 (Dkk-1) is the founding member of the Dickkopf family of proteins that includes Dkk-1, -2, -3, -4, and a related protein, Soggy (1, 2). Dkk proteins are secreted proteins that contain two conserved cysteine-rich domains separated by a linker region. Each domain contains ten cysteine residues (1‑3). Mature human Dkk-1 is a 40 kDa glycosylated protein that shares 86%, 87%, 90% and 91% aa sequence identity with mouse, rat, rabbit and bovine Dkk-1, respectively. It also shares 42% and 36% aa identity with human Dkk-2 and Dkk-4, respectively. Dkk-1 and Dkk-4 are well documented antagonists of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway (1, 2). This pathway is activated by Wnt engagement of a receptor complex composed of the Frizzled proteins and one of two low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins, LRP5 or LRP6 (4). Dkk-1 antagonizes Wnt by forming ternary complexes of LRP5/6 with Kremen1 or Kremen2 (4, 5). Dkk‑1/LRP6/Krm2 complex internalization has been shown to down-regulate Wnt signaling (4, 5). Dkk-1 is expressed throughout development and antagonizes Wnt-7a during limb development (6, 7). Other sites of expression include developing neurons, hair follicles and the retina of the eye (8, 9). The balance between Wnt signaling and Dkk-1 inhibition is critical for bone formation and homeostasis (10). Insufficient or excess Dkk-1 activity in bone results in increased or decreased bone density, respectively (8, 11). In adults, Dkk-1 is expressed in osteoblasts and osteocytes, and neurons. Cerebral ischemia induces Dkk-1 expression, which contributes to neuronal cell death (12).
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Niehrs, C. (2006) Oncogene 25:7469.
Bullock, C.M. et al. (2004) Mol. Pharmacol. 65:582.
Mao, B. et al. (2001) Nature 411:321.
Mao, B. et al. (2002) Nature 417:664.
Kemp, C. et al. (2005) Dev. Dyn. 233:1064.
Adamska, M. et al. (2004) Dev. Biol. 272:134.
Li, J. et al. (2006) Bone 36:754.
Verani, R. et al. (2006) J. Neurochem. 101:242.
Pinzone, J.J. et al. (2009) Blood 113:517.
Morvan, F. et al. (2006) J. Bone Miner. Res. 21:934.
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