GDF-9 Antibody (917319) [Alexa Fluor® 405]

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Product Details

Summary
Reactivity HuSpecies Glossary
Applications Flow
Clone
917319
Clonality
Monoclonal
Host
Mouse
Conjugate
Alexa Fluor 405

GDF-9 Antibody (917319) [Alexa Fluor® 405] Summary

Immunogen
Human embryonic kidney cell line derived recombinant human GDF-9
Met1-Arg454
Accession # O60383
Specificity
Detects human GDF-9 in direct ELISAs.
Isotype
IgG2b
Clonality
Monoclonal
Host
Mouse
Innovator's Reward
Test in a species/application not listed above to receive a full credit towards a future purchase.

Applications/Dilutions

Dilutions
  • Flow Cytometry 0.25-1 ug/10^6 cells

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Storage
Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.
Buffer
Supplied 0.2 mg/mL in a saline solution containing BSA and Sodium Azide.

Notes

This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for GDF-9 Antibody (917319) [Alexa Fluor® 405]

  • GDF9
  • GDF-9
  • growth differentiation factor 9
  • growth/differentiation factor 9

Background

Growth Differentiation Factor-9 (GDF-9) is an oocyte secreted paracrine factor in the TGF-beta superfamily (1, 2). It is synthesized as a prepropeptide and is subsequently processed by proteases into the mature protein (1, 2). Mature human GDF-9 has a predicted molecular weight of 16 kDa and shares 89.6% and 91.9% amino acid sequence identity with the mouse and rat orthologs, respectively. Despite the high homology, mouse GDF-9 is secreted in an active form, while human GDF-9 is latent. A single mutation Gly391Arg increases the affinity between human GDF-9 and its signaling receptors and make it more active (3). It forms both non-covalent homodimers and heterodimers with BMP-15, which is coordinately expressed with GDF-9 in the oocyte. (2, 4, 5). GDF-9 signals through TGF-beta RI/ALK-5 and BMPR-II, while the GDF-9:BMP-15 heterodimer is believed to signal through BMPR-II, ALK 4/5/7, and BMPR-IB/ALK-6 (5-8). SMAD2 and SMAD3 are phosphorylated following activation of receptor complexes by GDF-9 (5, 6). GDF-9 functions as a paracrine factor in the development of primary follicles in the ovary. It is critical for the growth of granulosa and theca cells and for the differentiation and maturation of the oocyte (5, 9-11). GDF-9 is thought to act synergistically with BMP-15 to control development of the oocyte-cumulus cell complex (4-6). In humans, GDF-9:BMP-15 heterodimers have been shown to be more potent regulators of granulosa cell functions compared to GDF-9 homodimers (6). Aberrant GDF-9 expression and activation is associated with a multitude of common human ovarian disorders including premature ovarian failure and polycystic ovary syndrome (10, 12-14). In breast and bladder cancers, GDF-9 is believed to function as a tumor suppressor because its expression levels are inversely correlated with the aggressiveness of the cancer (15, 16). In prostate cancer, however, GDF-9 may enhance tumor progression by promoting tumor cell growth and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (17, 18).

  1. McGrath, S. A. et al. (1995) Mol. Endocrinol. 9:131.
  2. Aaltonen, J. et al. (1999) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 84:2744.
  3. Simpson, C.M. et al. (2012) 153:1301.
  4. Liao, W.X. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278:3713.
  5. Gilchrist, R.B. et al. (2008) Hum. Reprod. Update 14:159.
  6. Peng, J. et al. (2013) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110:E776.
  7. Vitt, U.A. et al. (2002) Biol. Reprod. 67:473.
  8. Mazerbourg, S. et al. (2004) Mol. Endocrinol. 18:653.
  9. Hreinsson, J.G. et al. (2002) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87:316.
  10. Otsuka, F. et al. (2011) Mol. Reprod. Dev. 78:9.
  11. Dong, J. et al. (1996) Nature 383:531.
  12. Zhao, S.Y. et al. (2010) Fertil. Steril. 94:261.
  13. Wei, L.N. et al. (2011) Fertil. Steril. 96:464.
  14. Simpson, C.M. et al. (2014) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. [Epub ahead of print].
  15. Hanavadi, S. et al. (2007) Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14:2159.
  16. Du, P. et al. (2012) Int. J. Mol. Med. 29:428.
  17. Bokobza, S.M. et al. (2010) J. Cell. Physiol. 225:529.
  18. Bokobza, S.M. et al. (2011) Mol. Cell. Biochem. 349:33.

Limitations

This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt.

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Secondary Antibodies

 

Isotype Controls

Other Available Formats

Alexa Fluor 350 FAB8266U
Alexa Fluor 405 FAB8266V
Alexa Fluor 488 FAB8266G
Alexa Fluor 594 FAB8266T
Alexa Fluor 647 FAB8266R
Alexa Fluor 700 FAB8266N
Alexa Fluor 750 FAB8266S

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