Recombinant human Complement Complement C4d protein
Intracytoplasmic vacuoles of endothelial cells and Secreted
Acute Humoral Rejection Marker
This monoclonal antibody is specific to Complement 4d (C4d) and reacts with the secreted as well as cell-bound C4d.C4d is a degradation product of the activated complement factor C4b. Complement 4b is typically activated by binding of Abs to specific target molecules. Following activation and degradation of the C4 molecule, thio-ester groups are exposed, which allow transient, covalent binding of the degradation product Complement 4d to endothelial cell surfaces and extracellular matrix components of vascular basement membranes near the sites of C4 activation. The presence of C4d in peritubular capillaries is a key indicator for acute humoral (i.e. antibody-mediated) rejection of kidney, heart, pancreas and lung allografts. As an established marker of antibody-mediated acute renal allograft rejection and its proclivity for endothelium, this component can be detected in peritubular capillaries in chronic renal allograft rejection as well as hyperacute rejection, acute vascular rejection, acute cellular rejection, and borderline rejection. It has been shown to be a significant predictor of transplant kidney graft survival. Anti-C4d, combined with anti-C3d, can be utilized as a tool for diagnosis of allograft rejection that may warrant a prompt and aggressive anti-rejection treatment.
Protein A or G purified
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ELISA: For coating use Ab at 1-2ug/ml, order Ab without BSA. Immunohistochemistry (Formalin-fixed): 1:200-1:400 for 30 minutes at RT. Staining of formalin-fixed tissues requires heating tissue sections in 1mM EDTA, pH 7.5-8.5, for 45 min at 95C followed by cooling at RT for 20 minutes. Optimal dilution for a specific application should be determined.
192 kDa. Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
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