LC3B Products

Antibodies
Proteins
LC3B Antibody Blocking Peptid ...
LC3B Antibody Blocking Peptide
NB100-2220PEP
Species: Mu
Applications: AC
Recombinant Human LC3B Protei ...
Recombinant Human LC3B Protein
NBP1-50960
Species: Hu
Applications: PAGE
Recombinant Mouse LC3B Protei ...
Recombinant Mouse LC3B Protein
NBP2-61172
Species: Mu
Applications: PAGE

Description

Autophagy (macroautophagy) is a catabolic process which targets intracellular components such as proteins and organelles for degradation. Originally described as a bulk degradation process, current research supports its selective nature (1). Selective autophagy targets specific cellular components for degradation including the endoplasmic reticulum (2) (ER-phagy), mitochondria (3) (mitophagy), peroxisomes (3) (pexophagy), ribosomes (4) (ribophagy) and bacteria (5) (xenophagy). Autophagy relies on a newly formed phagophore, a membrane structure which elongates, sequesters cellular content, and fuses to form a double membrane vesicle known as the autophagosome. Fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes gives rise to the autophagolysosome, where cellular components are degraded by lysosome hydrolases (1).

Autophagic flux is supported by autophagy-related proteins (Atgs) initially identified in yeast (6,7). The core autophagy machinery is comprised of 17 Atg proteins that play specific roles in autophagosome formation. Among these Atg proteins, Atg8 is not only involved in autophagosome formation but also functions in cargo selection. In mammals, several Atg8 homologues have been identified including microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha, beta and gamma - LC3A, LC3B, and LC3C (8) respectively, as well as GABA type A receptor-associated protein (GABARAP), GABARAP-Like1, and GABARAP-Like2 (9). LC3 (predicted molecular weight 14kD) is ubiquitously expressed and undergoes posttranslational processing after synthesis. First, the cysteine protease Atg4 cleaves a carboxy terminal sequence to generate the cytosolic form LC3-I. Next, E1-like (Atg7) and E2-like (Atg3) enzymes conjugate phosphatidylethanolamine to the newly exposed carboxyterminal glycine, generating LC3-II. Finally, the Atg12-Atg5-Atg16L1 complex participates in LC3 lipidation and autophagosome formation (10). LC3B-I to LC3B-II conversion correlates with autophagosome number and is considered the best marker to monitor autophagy.

References

1. Yu, L., Chen, Y., & Tooze, S. A. (2018). Autophagy pathway: Cellular and molecular mechanisms. Autophagy. https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2017.1378838

2. Forrester, A., De Leonibus, C., Grumati, P., Fasana, E., Piemontese, M., Staiano, L.,... Settembre, C. (2019). A selective ER -phagy exerts procollagen quality control via a Calnexin- FAM 134B complex. The EMBO Journal. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.201899847

3. He, X., Zhu, Y., Zhang, Y., Geng, Y., Gong, J., Geng, J.,... Zhong, H. (2019). RNF34 functions in immunity and selective mitophagy by targeting MAVS for autophagic degradation. The EMBO Journal. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2018100978

4. Mathai, B., Meijer, A., & Simonsen, A. (2017). Studying Autophagy in Zebrafish. Cells. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells6030021

5. Losier, T. T., Akuma, M., McKee-Muir, O. C., LeBlond, N. D., Suk, Y., Alsaadi, R. M.,... Russell, R. C. (2019). AMPK Promotes Xenophagy through Priming of Autophagic Kinases upon Detection of Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles. Cell Reports. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.01.062

6. Nakatogawa, H., Suzuki, K., Kamada, Y., & Ohsumi, Y. (2009). Dynamics and diversity in autophagy mechanisms: Lessons from yeast. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrm2708

7. Tsukada, M., & Ohsumi, Y. (1993). Isolation and characterization of autophagy-defective mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Letters. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(93)80398-E

8. Wild, P., McEwan, D. G., & Dikic, I. (2014). The LC3 interactome at a glance. Journal of Cell Science. https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.140426

9. Igloi, G. L. (2001). Cloning, expression patterns, and chromosome localization of three human and two mouse homologues of GABAA receptor-associated protein. Genomics. https://doi.org/10.1006/geno.2001.6555

10. Glick, D., Barth, S., & Macleod, K. F. (2010). Autophagy: Cellular and molecular mechanisms. Journal of Pathology. https://doi.org/10.1002/path.2697

Bioinformatics

Entrez Human
Mouse
Uniprot Human
Human
Human
Human
Human
Human
Product By Gene ID 81631
Alternate Names
  • microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta
  • MAP1LC3B-a
  • lc3b autophagy marker
  • map1lc3b
  • microtubule associated protein 3 b
  • microtubule associated protein 3 beta
  • lc3-i, ii
  • MAP1A/MAP1B LC3 B
  • microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B
  • MAP1 light chain 3-like protein 2
  • microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3
  • Autophagy-related ubiquitin-like modifier LC3 B
  • MAP1A/1BLC3
  • Autophagy-related protein LC3 B
  • LC3B
  • ATG8F

Research Areas for LC3B

Find related products by research area and learn more about each of the different research areas below.

Autophagy
Cancer
Cellular Markers
Cytoskeleton Markers
Hypoxia
Neuroscience
Phospho-Specific
Signal Transduction

PTMs for LC3B

Learn more about PTMs related to LC3B.

Phosphorylation
Cleavage
Ubiquitination

Bioinformatics Tool for LC3B

Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to LC3B. Need help? Read the Bioinformatics Tool Guide for instructions on using this tool.
 
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Related LC3B Blog Posts

Check out the latest blog posts on LC3B.
Autophagy and RAS signaling: Clinical implications
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Methamphetamine with HIV induces mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal injury through oxidative stress
By Jamshed Arslan, Pharm. D., PhD. December 1 is the World AIDS Day. Despite the combination antiretroviral therapy, 10-25% of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-positive individuals report neurocognitive impairm...    Read more.
Autophagy and Metastasis
  By Christina Towers, PhD The majority of cancer patients die from metastatic disease at secondary sites. The threshold to undergo metastasis is high. Only a minority of cancer cells acquire invasive phenotypes...    Read more.
Optogenetic Control of Mitophagy: AMBRA1 based mitophagy switch
By Christina Towers, PhD Mitophagy in the BrainSelective autophagic degradation of damaged mitochondria, known as mitophagy, has been described as a cyto-protective process. Accordingly, defects in mitophagy h...    Read more.
Autophagic flux: Is p62 a good indicator?
By Christina Towers, PhD Is p62 a good indicator of autophagic flux? The short answer: Yes … but … SQSTM1 encodes the cargo adaptor protein, p62, which interacts with autophagic substrates and delivers them to aut...    Read more.
Best genes to knockout to control autophagic flux
By Christina Towers, PhD Autophagy flux: Basic principlesAutophagic flux is defined as the amount of cellular material degraded and recycled through the process of autophagy, whereby cells break down and disca...    Read more.
Make each cell count: How to assess autophagy using flow cytometry
Kristy R. Howell, PhDThe cellular recycling process known as autophagy may be induced by a variety of conditions including reduced nutrient availability, serum starvation and pharmacological agents (e.g., Rapamyci...    Read more.
How to visualize autophagy by microscopy
By Christina Towers, PhD Autophagy is a recycling process that relies on the formation of a unique organelle termed an autophagosome. An elegant way to monitor autophagy is through various microscopy techniques to...    Read more.
The LC3 A, B, C’s and 1, 2, 3’s
By Christina Towers, PhD Autophagy is a catabolic process used to breakdown and recycle damaged proteins and organelles. It is a multistep process that, in its simplest form, consists of 4 steps: initiation, phago...    Read more.
Best way to quantitatively measure Autophagic Flux
By Christina Towers, PhD Autophagy is a stress-induced cellular recycling process that plays an important physiological role in many diseases. It is induced by a variety of stimuli, both intracellular and extracel...    Read more.
Animal Models to Study Autophagy
By Christina Towers, PhD What is autophagy?Autophagy is the catabolic process that degrades cytoplasmic material via the lysosome. The process of macroautophagy was originally characterized in yeast, where the...    Read more.
Best Methods to Induce and Inhibit Autophagy Pharmacologically
By Christina Towers, PhD Autophagy facilitates the degradation and recycling of damaged cytoplasmic material. The multistep process includes a double membrane structure called an autophagosome that engulfs pr...    Read more.
Losing memory: Toxicity from mutant APP and amyloid beta explain the hippocampal neuronal damage in Alzheimer's disease
 By Jamshed Arslan Pharm.D.  Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible brain disorder that destroys memory and thinking skills. The telltale signs of AD brains are extracellular deposits of amy...    Read more.
Application Focus: I see an increase in LC3, now what?
 By Christina Towers, PhD.  Autophagy is highly conserved and tightly regulated process that all cell types use to recycle nutrients, particularly in the instance of stress1. As a result, even sm...    Read more.
Epigenetic Control of Autophagy
By Christina Towers, PhD. In the last 20 years, epigenetic regulation has become front and center for almost all fields of biology and its role in diseases like cancer and neurodegeneration are being heavily studi...    Read more.
Crosstalk Between Oxidative Stress and Autophagy
By Christina Towers, PhD. Role of Reactive Species in Cellular FunctionOxidative stress is a byproduct of an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants present in the cell, resulting in dysfunctional redox si...    Read more.
Autophagy inhibition in pediatrics: One physician-scientist’s brave decision
By Christina Towers, PhD. The current time from when a discovery is first made on the bench to when that discovery might translate into an approved therapy in cancer patients is an astounding 10-15 years. Scientis...    Read more.
Cleaner gone bad: Autophagy regulates motor neuron loss in spinal muscular atrophy
By Jamshed Arslan Pharm.D. Neuromuscular disorders affect the peripheral nervous system and muscles. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is one such incurable disease in which muscles fail to receive signals from the sp...    Read more.
Brain size matters: MTOR regulates autophagy and number of cortical interneurons
By Jamshed Arslan Pharm.D. Interneurons transmit impulses between other neurons, in part, to facilitate the birth of neurons. Cortical interneurons themselves arise from the progenitors in the ventral telencephalo...    Read more.
Why LC3B Antibodies Make Ideal Autophagosomes Membrane Markers
The human form of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) is expressed as 3 splice variants; LC3A, LC3B and LC3C (He et al., 2003). LC3B is a subunit of the MAP1A and MAP1B microtubule-binding pr...    Read more.
LC3B: From Autophagy to Cancer
LC3B is subunit component of the LC3 autophagy biomarker associated with microtubule-associated proteins MAP1A and MAP1B and one of the best characterized markers to date. In resting state, it is cytosolic, but upon activation, is lapidated and become...    Read more.
LC3B Empowers Protein Quality Control by Autophagy
LC3B, also known as microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (MAP1LC3B), is an autophagy gene that contributes appreciably to protein degradation. Autophagy is a highly synchronized and dynamic catabolic degradation activity that...    Read more.
Analyzing LC3 in Western blot
Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) is considered one of the definitive markers of autophagy, and its use is widespread in labs throughout the world. Despite its popularity, there are several considerations when employing LC3 antibodies...    Read more.
Marking the Autophagosome: the LC3 Antibody
MAP1LC3 (shortened to LC3 in our antibody catalog) is one of four mammalian homologues of autophagy-related protein 8 (Atg8). It has been identified as a light chain subunit of the microtubule-associated proteins MAP1A/MAP1B. A modified form of LC3, L...    Read more.
Breakdown: Interpreting LC3 Antibody WB Results
In rodents, MAP1LC3 (Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3) is expressed in the renal visceral epithelial cells, or podocytes. LC3 antibody analysis has shown the protein accumulates in its membrane-bound form, LC3II, following conversio...    Read more.
The Role of LC3 within the Autophagic Pathway
We at Novus Biologicals have a broad antibody database covering the area of autophagy - over 1400 reagents in total. Autophagy is the bulk degradation of cytoplasmic components - literally, self-digestion of the cell. Double-membrane vesicles, called...    Read more.
Read more LC3B related blogs.