LC3B Products

Antibodies
Proteins
LC3B Blocking Peptide
LC3B Blocking Peptide
NB100-2220PEP
Species: Mu
Applications: AC
Recombinant Human LC3B Protei ...
Recombinant Human LC3B Protein
NBP1-50960
Species: Hu
Applications: PAGE
Recombinant Mouse LC3B Protei ...
Recombinant Mouse LC3B Protein
NBP2-61172
Species: Mu
Applications: PAGE

Description

Autophagy (macroautophagy) is a catabolic process which targets intracellular components such as proteins and organelles for degradation. Originally described as a bulk degradation process, current research supports its selective nature (1). Selective autophagy targets specific cellular components for degradation including the endoplasmic reticulum (2) (ER-phagy), mitochondria (3) (mitophagy), peroxisomes (3) (pexophagy), ribosomes (4) (ribophagy) and bacteria (5) (xenophagy). Autophagy relies on a newly formed phagophore, a membrane structure which elongates, sequesters cellular content, and fuses to form a double membrane vesicle known as the autophagosome. Fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes gives rise to the autophagolysosome, where cellular components are degraded by lysosome hydrolases (1).

Autophagic flux is supported by autophagy-related proteins (Atgs) initially identified in yeast (6,7). The core autophagy machinery is comprised of 17 Atg proteins that play specific roles in autophagosome formation. Among these Atg proteins, Atg8 is not only involved in autophagosome formation but also functions in cargo selection. In mammals, several Atg8 homologues have been identified including microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha, beta and gamma - LC3A, LC3B, and LC3C (8) respectively, as well as GABA type A receptor-associated protein (GABARAP), GABARAP-Like1, and GABARAP-Like2 (9). LC3 (predicted molecular weight 14kD) is ubiquitously expressed and undergoes posttranslational processing after synthesis. First, the cysteine protease Atg4 cleaves a carboxy terminal sequence to generate the cytosolic form LC3-I. Next, E1-like (Atg7) and E2-like (Atg3) enzymes conjugate phosphatidylethanolamine to the newly exposed carboxyterminal glycine, generating LC3-II. Finally, the Atg12-Atg5-Atg16L1 complex participates in LC3 lipidation and autophagosome formation (10). LC3B-I to LC3B-II conversion correlates with autophagosome number and is considered the best marker to monitor autophagy.

References

1. Yu, L., Chen, Y., & Tooze, S. A. (2018). Autophagy pathway: Cellular and molecular mechanisms. Autophagy. https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2017.1378838

2. Forrester, A., De Leonibus, C., Grumati, P., Fasana, E., Piemontese, M., Staiano, L.,... Settembre, C. (2019). A selective ER -phagy exerts procollagen quality control via a Calnexin- FAM 134B complex. The EMBO Journal. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.201899847

3. He, X., Zhu, Y., Zhang, Y., Geng, Y., Gong, J., Geng, J.,... Zhong, H. (2019). RNF34 functions in immunity and selective mitophagy by targeting MAVS for autophagic degradation. The EMBO Journal. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2018100978

4. Mathai, B., Meijer, A., & Simonsen, A. (2017). Studying Autophagy in Zebrafish. Cells. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells6030021

5. Losier, T. T., Akuma, M., McKee-Muir, O. C., LeBlond, N. D., Suk, Y., Alsaadi, R. M.,... Russell, R. C. (2019). AMPK Promotes Xenophagy through Priming of Autophagic Kinases upon Detection of Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles. Cell Reports. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.01.062

6. Nakatogawa, H., Suzuki, K., Kamada, Y., & Ohsumi, Y. (2009). Dynamics and diversity in autophagy mechanisms: Lessons from yeast. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrm2708

7. Tsukada, M., & Ohsumi, Y. (1993). Isolation and characterization of autophagy-defective mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Letters. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(93)80398-E

8. Wild, P., McEwan, D. G., & Dikic, I. (2014). The LC3 interactome at a glance. Journal of Cell Science. https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.140426

9. Igloi, G. L. (2001). Cloning, expression patterns, and chromosome localization of three human and two mouse homologues of GABAA receptor-associated protein. Genomics. https://doi.org/10.1006/geno.2001.6555

10. Glick, D., Barth, S., & Macleod, K. F. (2010). Autophagy: Cellular and molecular mechanisms. Journal of Pathology. https://doi.org/10.1002/path.2697

Bioinformatics

Entrez Human
Mouse
Uniprot Human
Human
Human
Human
Human
Human
Product By Gene ID 81631
Alternate Names
  • microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta
  • MAP1LC3B-a
  • lc3b autophagy marker
  • map1lc3b
  • microtubule associated protein 3 b
  • microtubule associated protein 3 beta
  • lc3-i, ii
  • MAP1A/MAP1B LC3 B
  • microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B
  • MAP1 light chain 3-like protein 2
  • microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3
  • Autophagy-related ubiquitin-like modifier LC3 B
  • MAP1A/1BLC3
  • Autophagy-related protein LC3 B
  • LC3B
  • ATG8F

Research Areas for LC3B

Find related products by research area and learn more about each of the different research areas below.

Autophagy
Cancer
Cellular Markers
Cytoskeleton Markers
Hypoxia
Neuroscience
Phospho-Specific
Signal Transduction

PTMs for LC3B

Learn more about PTMs related to LC3B.

Phosphorylation
Cleavage
Ubiquitination

Bioinformatics Tool for LC3B

Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to LC3B. Need help? Read the Bioinformatics Tool Guide for instructions on using this tool.
 
Vizit™, under license from BioVista Inc.

Related LC3B Blog Posts

Check out the latest blog posts on LC3B.
Autophagy and Metastasis
  By Christina Towers, PhD The majority of cancer patients die from metastatic disease at secondary sites. The threshold to undergo metastasis is high. Only a minority of cancer cells acquire invasive phenotypes...    Read more.

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Why LC3B Antibodies Make Ideal Autophagosomes Membrane Markers
The human form of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) is expressed as 3 splice variants; LC3A, LC3B and LC3C (He et al., 2003). LC3B is a subunit of the MAP1A and MAP1B microtubule-binding pr...    Read more.
LC3B: From Autophagy to Cancer
LC3B is subunit component of the LC3 autophagy biomarker associated with microtubule-associated proteins MAP1A and MAP1B and one of the best characterized markers to date. In resting state, it is cytosolic, but upon activation, is lapidated and become...    Read more.
LC3B Empowers Protein Quality Control by Autophagy
LC3B, also known as microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (MAP1LC3B), is an autophagy gene that contributes appreciably to protein degradation. Autophagy is a highly synchronized and dynamic catabolic degradation activity that...    Read more.
Analyzing LC3 in Western blot
Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) is considered one of the definitive markers of autophagy, and its use is widespread in labs throughout the world. Despite its popularity, there are several considerations when employing LC3 antibodies...    Read more.
Marking the Autophagosome: the LC3 Antibody
MAP1LC3 (shortened to LC3 in our antibody catalog) is one of four mammalian homologues of autophagy-related protein 8 (Atg8). It has been identified as a light chain subunit of the microtubule-associated proteins MAP1A/MAP1B. A modified form of LC3, L...    Read more.
Breakdown: Interpreting LC3 Antibody WB Results
In rodents, MAP1LC3 (Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3) is expressed in the renal visceral epithelial cells, or podocytes. LC3 antibody analysis has shown the protein accumulates in its membrane-bound form, LC3II, following conversio...    Read more.
The Role of LC3 within the Autophagic Pathway
We at Novus Biologicals have a broad antibody database covering the area of autophagy - over 1400 reagents in total. Autophagy is the bulk degradation of cytoplasmic components - literally, self-digestion of the cell. Double-membrane vesicles, called...    Read more.
Read more LC3B related blogs.