Recombinant Mouse IL-21 Protein, CF

Images

 
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Mouse IL-21 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 15 kDa.
Recombinant Mouse IL-21 (Catalog # 594‑ML/CF) stimulates cell proliferation in the N1186 human T cell line. The ED50 is 4‑30 ng/mL.

Product Details

Summary
Reactivity MuSpecies Glossary
Applications Bioactivity
Format
Carrier-Free

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Recombinant Mouse IL-21 Protein, CF Summary

Details of Functionality
Measured in a cell proliferation assay using N1186 human T cells. Parrish-Novak, J. et al. (2000) Nature 408:57. The ED50 for this effect is 4‑30 ng/mL.
Source
E. coli-derived mouse IL-21 protein
Pro25-Ser146, with and without an N-terminal Met
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Pro25 & Met
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
Gene
Il21
Purity
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Endotoxin Note
<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.

Applications/Dilutions

Theoretical MW
14.4 kDa.
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
Publications
Read Publications using
594-ML/CF in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 3 months, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Buffer
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS. *1 mg pack size (01M) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
Purity
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.

Notes

This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Mouse IL-21 Protein, CF

  • IL21
  • IL-21
  • IL-21Za11interleukin-21
  • interleukin 21
  • interleukin-21 isoform

Background

Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is an approximately 14 kDa four-helix-bundle cytokine in the family of cytokines that utilize the common gamma chain ( gamma c) as a receptor subunit.  gamma c is also a subunit of the receptors for IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15 (1). IL-21 is produced by activated T follicular helper cells (Tfh), Th17 cells, and NKT cells (2-6). It exerts its biological effects through a heterodimeric receptor complex of gamma c and the IL-21-specific IL-21 R (2, 7). Tfh-derived IL-21 plays an important role in the development of humoral immunity through its autocrine effects on the Tfh cell and paracrine effects on immunoglobulin affinity maturation, plasma cell differentiation, and B cell memory responses (4, 8, 9). It is also required for the migration of dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes (10). IL-21 regulates several aspects of T cell function. It co‑stimulates the activation, proliferation, and survival of CD8+ T cells and NKT cells and promotes Th17 cell polarization (3, 5, 6, 11, 12). It blocks the generation of regulatory T cells and their suppressive effects on CD4+ T cells (13, 14). IL-21 R engagement enhances the cytolytic activity and IFN-gamma production of activated NK cells but limits the expansion of resting NK cells (15). In addition, IL-21 suppresses cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions by limiting allergen-specific IgE production and mast cell degranulation (16). Dysregulation of the IL‑21/IL‑21 R system contributes to the development of multiple immunological disorders (1, 17). The mouse IL‑21 precursor contains a predicted 17 amino acid (aa) signal sequence and a 129 aa mature chain. Mature mouse IL-21 shares 66%, 59%, 58%, and 88% aa sequence identity with mature canine, human, rabbit, and rat IL-21, respectively.

  1. Leonard, W.J. et al. (2008) J. Leukoc. Biol. 84:348.
  2. Parrish-Novak, et al. (2000) Nature 408:57.
  3. Coquet, J.M. et al. (2007) J. Immunol. 178:2827.
  4. Vogelzang, A. et al. (2008) Immunity 29:127.
  5. Korn, T. et al. (2007) Nature 448:484.
  6. Nurieva, R. et al. (2007) Nature 448:480.
  7. Asao, H. et al. (2001) J. Immunol. 167:1.
  8. Zotos, D. et al. (2010) J. Exp. Med. 207:365.
  9. Rankin, A.L. et al. (2011) J. Immunol. 186:667.
  10. Jin, H. et al. (2009) J. Clin. Invest. 119:47.
  11. Frohlich, A. et al. (2009) Science 324:1576.
  12. Yi, J.S., et al. (2009) Science 324:1572.
  13. Peluso, I. et al. (2007) J. Immunol. 178:732.
  14. Bucher, C. et al. (2009) Blood 114:5375.
  15. Kasaian, M.T. et al. (2002) Immunity 16:559.
  16. Tamagawa-Mineoka, R. et al. (2011) J. Invest. Dermatol. 131:1513.
  17. Ma, J. et al. (2011) Cytokine 56:133.

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Publications for IL-21 (594-ML/CF)(32)

We have publications tested in 3 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, N/A.

We have publications tested in 5 applications: Bioassay, ELISA Standard, Flow, In Vivo, WB Ctrl.


Filter By Application
Bioassay
(18)
ELISA Standard
(1)
Flow
(1)
In Vivo
(10)
WB Ctrl
(1)
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Human
(1)
Mouse
(28)
N/A
(1)
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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 32. Show All 32 Publications.
Publications using 594-ML/CF Applications Species
B Sun, L Zhu, Y Tao, HX Sun, Y Li, P Wang, Y Hou, Y Zhao, X Zhang, L Zhang, N Na, Y Zhao Characterization and allergic role of IL-33-induced neutrophil polarization Cell. Mol. Immunol., 2018;0(0):. 2018 [PMID: 29503441] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
A Muschaweck, F Petermann, T Korn IL-1? and IL-23 Promote Extrathymic Commitment of CD27(+)CD122(-) ?? T Cells to ??T17 Cells J. Immunol., 2017;0(0):. 2017 [PMID: 28855314] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
L Tan, S Han, S Ding, W Xiao, Y Ding, L Qian, C Wang, W Gong Chitosan nanoparticle-based delivery of fused NKG2D-IL-21 gene suppresses colon cancer growth in mice Int J Nanomedicine, 2017;12(0):3095-3107. 2017 [PMID: 28450784] (In Vivo, Mouse) In Vivo Mouse
Egr2 and Egr3 in regulatory T cells cooperatively control systemic autoimmunity through Ltbp3-mediated TGF-?3 production Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2016;113(50):E8131-E8140. 2016 [PMID: 27911796] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
Basu R, Whitley S, Bhaumik S, Zindl C, Schoeb T, Benveniste E, Pear W, Hatton R, Weaver C IL-1 signaling modulates activation of STAT transcription factors to antagonize retinoic acid signaling and control the TH17 cell-iTreg cell balance. Nat Immunol, 2015;16(3):286-95. 2015 [PMID: 25642823] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
Beverley P, Ruzsics Z, Hey A, Hutchings C, Boos S, Bolinger B, Marchi E, O'Hara G, Klenerman P, Koszinowski U, Tchilian E A novel murine cytomegalovirus vaccine vector protects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Immunol, 2014;193(5):2306-16. 2014 [PMID: 25070842] (In Vivo, Mouse) In Vivo Mouse
Hou Y, Lin H, Zhu L, Liu Z, Hu F, Shi J, Yang T, Shi X, Guo H, Tan X, Zhang L, Wang Q, Li Z, Zhao Y The inhibitory effect of IFN-gamma on protease HTRA1 expression in rheumatoid arthritis. J Immunol, 2014;193(1):130-8. 2014 [PMID: 24907345]
Zhu E, Wang X, Zheng B, Wang Q, Hao J, Chen S, Zhao Q, Zhao L, Wu Z, Yin Z miR-20b suppresses Th17 differentiation and the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by targeting RORgammat and STAT3. J Immunol, 2014;192(12):5599-609. 2014 [PMID: 24842756] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
Yeste A, Mascanfroni I, Nadeau M, Burns E, Tukpah A, Santiago A, Wu C, Patel B, Kumar D, Quintana F IL-21 induces IL-22 production in CD4+ T cells. Nat Commun, 2014;5(0):3753. 2014 [PMID: 24796415] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
Mastrofrancesco A, Kovacs D, Sarra M, Bastonini E, Cardinali G, Aspite N, Camera E, Chavatte P, Desreumaux P, Monteleone G, Picardo M Preclinical studies of a specific PPARgamma modulator in the control of skin inflammation. J Invest Dermatol, 2014;134(4):1001-11. 2014 [PMID: 24166135] (In Vivo, Mouse) In Vivo Mouse
Show All 32 Publications.

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Blogs on IL-21. Showing 1-10 of 49 blog posts - Show all blog posts.

Perforin Antibodies Reveal Links to Apoptosis and Immune Response
Perforin, also known as the pore-forming protein, pfp, is a 70 kD cytolytic protein expressed in the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. It is one of the major effector molecules used by CTL and NK cel...  Read full blog post.

Perforin Antibodies Reveal Links to Apoptosis and Immune Response
Perforin, also known as the pore-forming protein, pfp, is a 70 kD cytolytic protein expressed in the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. It is one of the major effector molecules used by CTL and NK cel...  Read full blog post.

Perforin Antibodies Reveal Links to Apoptosis and Immune Response
Perforin, also known as the pore-forming protein, pfp, is a 70 kD cytolytic protein expressed in the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. It is one of the major effector molecules used by CTL and NK cel...  Read full blog post.

Perforin Antibodies Reveal Links to Apoptosis and Immune Response
Perforin, also known as the pore-forming protein, pfp, is a 70 kD cytolytic protein expressed in the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. It is one of the major effector molecules used by CTL and NK cel...  Read full blog post.

Perforin Antibodies Reveal Links to Apoptosis and Immune Response
Perforin, also known as the pore-forming protein, pfp, is a 70 kD cytolytic protein expressed in the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. It is one of the major effector molecules used by CTL and NK cel...  Read full blog post.

Perforin Antibodies Reveal Links to Apoptosis and Immune Response
Perforin, also known as the pore-forming protein, pfp, is a 70 kD cytolytic protein expressed in the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. It is one of the major effector molecules used by CTL and NK cel...  Read full blog post.

Perforin Antibodies Reveal Links to Apoptosis and Immune Response
Perforin, also known as the pore-forming protein, pfp, is a 70 kD cytolytic protein expressed in the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. It is one of the major effector molecules used by CTL and NK cel...  Read full blog post.

Perforin Antibodies Reveal Links to Apoptosis and Immune Response
Perforin, also known as the pore-forming protein, pfp, is a 70 kD cytolytic protein expressed in the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. It is one of the major effector molecules used by CTL and NK cel...  Read full blog post.

Perforin Antibodies Reveal Links to Apoptosis and Immune Response
Perforin, also known as the pore-forming protein, pfp, is a 70 kD cytolytic protein expressed in the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. It is one of the major effector molecules used by CTL and NK cel...  Read full blog post.

Perforin Antibodies Reveal Links to Apoptosis and Immune Response
Perforin, also known as the pore-forming protein, pfp, is a 70 kD cytolytic protein expressed in the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. It is one of the major effector molecules used by CTL and NK cel...  Read full blog post.

Showing 1-10 of 49 blog posts - Show all blog posts.

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Bioinformatics

Gene Symbol Il21
Entrez
Uniprot