Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A Protein

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1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing single bands at 14 kDa and 24 kDa, ...read more
Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A (Catalog # 338-AC) induces hemoglobin expression in K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. The ED50 is 0.2‑1.2 ng/mL.
BG01V human embryonic stem cells were differentiated into endoderm using media supplemented with Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A (Catalog # 338-AC). Control cells were cultured in medium without recombinant ...read more

Product Details

Summary
Reactivity Hu, Mu, RtSpecies Glossary
Applications Bioactivity

Order Details

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Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A Protein Summary

Additional Information
CHO derived
Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to induce hemoglobin expression in K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. Schwall, R.H. et al. (1991) Method Enzymol. 198:340. The ED50 for this effect is 0.2‑1.2 ng/mL.
The specific activity of Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A is approximately 1 IU/μg, which is calibrated against human Activin A WHO International Standard (NIBSC code: 91/626).
Source
Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived Activin A protein
Gly311-Ser426
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Gly311
Structure / Form
Disulfide-linked homodimer
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
Gene
INHBA
Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE with silver staining.
Endotoxin Note
<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.

Applications/Dilutions

Theoretical MW
13 kDa (monomer).
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
SDS-PAGE
14 kDa, reducing conditions
24 kDa, non-reducing conditions
Publications
Read Publications using
338-AC in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Buffer
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE with silver staining.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 100-500 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl.

Notes

This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A Protein

  • Activin A
  • activin AB alpha polypeptide
  • Activin beta-A chain
  • erythroid differentiation factor
  • Erythroid differentiation protein
  • follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing protein
  • FSH-releasing protein
  • inhibin beta A chain
  • inhibin beta A subunit
  • Inhibin, beta-1

Background

Activin and Inhibin are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines and are involved in a wide range of biological processes including tissue morphogenesis and repair, fibrosis, inflammation, neural development, hematopoiesis, reproductive system function, and carcinogenesis (1‑7). Activin and Inhibin are produced as precursor proteins. Their amino terminal propeptides are proteolytically cleaved and facilitate formation of disulfide-linked dimers of the bioactive proteins (8, 9). Activins are nonglycosylated homodimers or heterodimers of various beta subunits ( beta A, beta B, beta C, and beta E in mammals), while Inhibins are heterodimers of a unique alpha subunit and one of the beta subunits. Activin A is a widely expressed homodimer of two beta A chains. The beta A subunit can also heterodimerize with a beta B or beta C subunit to form Activin AB and Activin AC, respectively (10). The 14 kDa mature human beta A chain shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with bovine, feline, mouse, porcine, and rat beta A. Activin A exerts its biological activities by binding to the type 2 serine/threonine kinase Activin RIIA which then noncovalently associates with the type 1 serine/threonine kinase Activin RIB/ALK-4 (7, 11). Signaling through this receptor complex leads to Smad activation and regulation of activin-responsive gene transcription (7, 11). The bioactivity of Activin A is regulated by a variety of mechanisms (11). BAMBI, Betaglycan, and Cripto are cell‑associated molecules that function as decoy receptors or limit the ability of Activin A to induce receptor complex assembly (12‑14). The intracellular formation of Activin A can be prevented by the incorporation of the beta A subunit into Activin AC or Inhibin A (3, 10). And the bioavailability of Activin A is restricted by its incorporation into inactive complexes with alpha 2-Macroglobulin, Follistatin, and FLRG (15, 16).
  1. Kumanov, P. et al. (2005) Reprod. Biomed. Online 10:786.
  2. Maeshima, A. et al. (2008) Endocr. J. 55:1.
  3. Rodgarkia-Dara, C. et al. (2006) Mutat. Res. 613:123.
  4. Werner, S. and C. Alzheimer (2006) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 17:157.
  5. Xu, P. and A.K. Hall (2006) Dev. Biol. 299:303.
  6. Shav-Tal, Y. and D. Zipori (2002) Stem Cells 20:493.
  7. Chen, Y.G. et al. (2006) Exp. Biol. Med. 231:534.
  8. Gray, A.M. and A.J. Mason (1990) Science 247:1328.
  9. Mason, A.J. et al. (1996) Mol. Endocrinol. 10:1055.
  10. Thompson, T.B. et al. (2004) Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 225:9.
  11. Harrison, C.A. et al. (2005) Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 16:73.
  12. Onichtchouk, D. et al. (1999) Nature 401:480.
  13. Gray, P.C. et al. (2002) Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 188:254.
  14. Kelber, J.A. et al. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283:4490.
  15. Phillips, D.J. et al. (1997) J. Endocrinol. 155:65.
  16. Schneyer, A. et al. (2003) Endocrinology 144:1671.

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Publications for Activin A (338-AC)(364)

We have publications tested in 12 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Rat, Bovine, Chicken, Goat, N/A, Ovine, Primate - Callitrix jacchus (Common Marmoset), Primate - Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating Monkey or Cynomolgus Macaque), Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque), Xenopus.

We have publications tested in 8 applications: Bioassay, Cell Culture, Differentiation, ELISA (Standard), Flow Cytometry, In Vivo, Stimulation, Surface Plasmon Resonance.


Filter By Application
Bioassay
(321)
Cell Culture
(23)
Differentiation
(4)
ELISA (Standard)
(1)
Flow Cytometry
(1)
In Vivo
(6)
Stimulation
(1)
Surface Plasmon Resonance
(2)
All Applications
Filter By Species
Human
(247)
Mouse
(93)
Rat
(7)
Bovine
(2)
Chicken
(1)
Goat
(1)
N/A
(1)
Ovine
(1)
Primate - Callitrix jacchus (Common Marmoset)
(1)
Primate - Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating Monkey or Cynomolgus Macaque)
(1)
Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
(1)
Xenopus
(4)
All Species
Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 364. Show All 364 Publications.
Publications using 338-AC Applications Species
K Takahashi, Y Akatsu, KA Podyma-Ino, T Matsumoto, H Takahashi, Y Yoshimatsu, D Koinuma, M Shirouzu, K Miyazono, T Watabe Targeting all transforming growth factor-&amp;beta isoforms with a Fc chimeric receptor impairs tumor growth and angiogenesis of oral squamous cell cancer J. Biol. Chem., 2020;0(0):. 2020 [PMID: 32631954] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
K Takeishi, A Collin de, Y Wang, K Handa, J Guzman-Lep, K Matsubara, K Morita, S Jang, N Haep, RM Florentino, F Yuan, K Fukumitsu, K Tobita, W Sun, J Franks, ER Delgado, EM Shapiro, NA Fraunhoffe, AW Duncan, H Yagi, T Mashimo, IJ Fox, A Soto-Gutie Assembly and Function of a Bioengineered Human Liver for Transplantation Generated Solely from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Cell Rep, 2020;31(9):107711. 2020 [PMID: 32492423] (Human) Human
Y Yamamoto, S Ito, K Okuda, K Kimura Involvement of activin signal pathway in cyclic apoptosis of the oviductal isthmic epithelium in cows Theriogenology, 2020;153(0):143-150. 2020 [PMID: 32485427] (Cell Culture, Bovine) Cell Culture Bovine
M Nafria, P Keane, ES Ng, EG Stanley, AG Elefanty, C Bonifer Expression of RUNX1-ETO Rapidly Alters the Chromatin Landscape and Growth of Early Human Myeloid Precursor Cells Cell Rep, 2020;31(8):107691. 2020 [PMID: 32460028] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
H Liang, P Zhang, HJ Bai, J Huang, HT Yang TATA box-binding protein-related factor 3 drives the mesendoderm specification of human embryonic stem cells by globally interacting with the TATA box of key mesendodermal genes Stem Cell Res Ther, 2020;11(1):196. 2020 [PMID: 32448362] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
LSW Loo, AAP Soetedjo, HH Lau, NHJ Ng, S Ghosh, L Nguyen, VG Krishnan, H Choi, X Roca, S Hoon, AKK Teo BCL-xL/BCL2L1 is a critical anti-apoptotic protein that promotes the survival of differentiating pancreatic cells from human pluripotent stem cells Cell Death Dis, 2020;11(5):378. 2020 [PMID: 32424151] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Kumar Gupta A, Sarkar P, Wertheim J, Pan X, Carroll T, Oxburgh L Asynchronous mixing of kidney progenitor cells potentiates nephrogenesis in organoids. Commun Biol, 0;3(1):231. 0 [PMID: 32393756] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
A Fleischer, S Vallejo-Dí, JM Martín-Fer, A Sánchez-Gi, M Castresana, A Del Pozo, A Esquisabel, S Ávila, JL Castrillo, E Gaínza, JL Pedraz, M Viñas, D Bachiller iPSC-Derived Intestinal Organoids from Cystic Fibrosis Patients Acquire CFTR Activity upon TALEN-Mediated Repair of the p.F508del Mutation Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev, 2020;17(0):858-870. 2020 [PMID: 32373648] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
AL Thomas, K Castellano, G Mancinelli, Y Xia, J Bauer, C Yazici, G Fantuzzi, RF Hwang, NL Krett, GI Papachrist, DC Whitcomb, B Jung Activin A Modulates Inflammation in Acute Pancreatitis and Strongly Predicts Severe Disease Independent of Body Mass Index Clin Transl Gastroenterol, 2020;11(5):e00152. 2020 [PMID: 32358238] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
NK Vinckier, NA Patel, RJ Geusz, A Wang, J Wang, I Matta, AR Harrington, M Wortham, N Wetton, J Wang, US Jhala, MG Rosenfeld, CW Benner, HP Shih, M Sander LSD1-mediated enhancer silencing attenuates retinoic acid signalling during pancreatic endocrine cell development Nat Commun, 2020;11(1):2082. 2020 [PMID: 32350257] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Show All 364 Publications.

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Transforming Growth Factor beta Signaling in Stem Cells
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) signaling along with its family members have been implicated in development and maintenance of various organs. Stem cells are important contributors to this process and are characterized by their ability to s...  Read full blog post.

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Bioinformatics

Gene Symbol INHBA
Uniprot