Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A Protein

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1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing single bands at 14 kDa and 24 kDa, ...read more
Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A (Catalog # 338-AC) induces hemoglobin expression in K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. The ED50 is 0.2‑1.2 ng/mL.
BG01V human embryonic stem cells were differentiated into endoderm using media supplemented with Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A (Catalog # 338-AC). Control cells were cultured in medium without recombinant ...read more

Product Details

Summary
Reactivity Hu, Mu, RtSpecies Glossary
Applications Bioactivity

Order Details

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Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A Protein Summary

Additional Information
CHO derived
Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to induce hemoglobin expression in K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. Schwall, R.H. et al. (1991) Method Enzymol. 198:340. The ED50 for this effect is 0.2‑1.2 ng/mL.
The specific activity of Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A is approximately 1 IU/μg, which is calibrated against human Activin A WHO International Standard (NIBSC code: 91/626).
Source
Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived Activin A protein
Gly311-Ser426
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Gly311
Structure / Form
Disulfide-linked homodimer
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
Gene
INHBA
Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE with silver staining.
Endotoxin Note
<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.

Applications/Dilutions

Theoretical MW
13 kDa (monomer).
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
SDS-PAGE
14 kDa, reducing conditions
24 kDa, non-reducing conditions
Publications
Read Publications using
338-AC in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Buffer
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE with silver staining.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 100-500 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl.

Notes

This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A Protein

  • Activin A
  • activin AB alpha polypeptide
  • Activin beta-A chain
  • erythroid differentiation factor
  • Erythroid differentiation protein
  • follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing protein
  • FSH-releasing protein
  • inhibin beta A chain
  • inhibin beta A subunit
  • Inhibin, beta-1

Background

Activin and Inhibin are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines and are involved in a wide range of biological processes including tissue morphogenesis and repair, fibrosis, inflammation, neural development, hematopoiesis, reproductive system function, and carcinogenesis (1‑7). Activin and Inhibin are produced as precursor proteins. Their amino terminal propeptides are proteolytically cleaved and facilitate formation of disulfide-linked dimers of the bioactive proteins (8, 9). Activins are nonglycosylated homodimers or heterodimers of various beta subunits ( beta A, beta B, beta C, and beta E in mammals), while Inhibins are heterodimers of a unique alpha subunit and one of the beta subunits. Activin A is a widely expressed homodimer of two beta A chains. The beta A subunit can also heterodimerize with a beta B or beta C subunit to form Activin AB and Activin AC, respectively (10). The 14 kDa mature human beta A chain shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with bovine, feline, mouse, porcine, and rat beta A. Activin A exerts its biological activities by binding to the type 2 serine/threonine kinase Activin RIIA which then noncovalently associates with the type 1 serine/threonine kinase Activin RIB/ALK-4 (7, 11). Signaling through this receptor complex leads to Smad activation and regulation of activin-responsive gene transcription (7, 11). The bioactivity of Activin A is regulated by a variety of mechanisms (11). BAMBI, Betaglycan, and Cripto are cell‑associated molecules that function as decoy receptors or limit the ability of Activin A to induce receptor complex assembly (12‑14). The intracellular formation of Activin A can be prevented by the incorporation of the beta A subunit into Activin AC or Inhibin A (3, 10). And the bioavailability of Activin A is restricted by its incorporation into inactive complexes with alpha 2-Macroglobulin, Follistatin, and FLRG (15, 16).
  1. Kumanov, P. et al. (2005) Reprod. Biomed. Online 10:786.
  2. Maeshima, A. et al. (2008) Endocr. J. 55:1.
  3. Rodgarkia-Dara, C. et al. (2006) Mutat. Res. 613:123.
  4. Werner, S. and C. Alzheimer (2006) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 17:157.
  5. Xu, P. and A.K. Hall (2006) Dev. Biol. 299:303.
  6. Shav-Tal, Y. and D. Zipori (2002) Stem Cells 20:493.
  7. Chen, Y.G. et al. (2006) Exp. Biol. Med. 231:534.
  8. Gray, A.M. and A.J. Mason (1990) Science 247:1328.
  9. Mason, A.J. et al. (1996) Mol. Endocrinol. 10:1055.
  10. Thompson, T.B. et al. (2004) Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 225:9.
  11. Harrison, C.A. et al. (2005) Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 16:73.
  12. Onichtchouk, D. et al. (1999) Nature 401:480.
  13. Gray, P.C. et al. (2002) Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 188:254.
  14. Kelber, J.A. et al. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283:4490.
  15. Phillips, D.J. et al. (1997) J. Endocrinol. 155:65.
  16. Schneyer, A. et al. (2003) Endocrinology 144:1671.

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Publications for Activin A (338-AC)(342)

We have publications tested in 12 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Rat, Bovine, Chicken, Goat, N/A, Ovine, Primate - Callitrix jacchus (Common Marmoset), Primate - Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating Monkey or Cynomolgus Macaque), Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque), Xenopus.

We have publications tested in 8 applications: Bioassay, Cell Culture, Differentiation, ELISA (Standard), Flow Cytometry, In Vivo, Stimulation, Surface Plasmon Resonance.


Filter By Application
Bioassay
(309)
Cell Culture
(14)
Differentiation
(4)
ELISA (Standard)
(1)
Flow Cytometry
(1)
In Vivo
(6)
Stimulation
(1)
Surface Plasmon Resonance
(2)
All Applications
Filter By Species
Human
(231)
Mouse
(88)
Rat
(7)
Bovine
(1)
Chicken
(1)
Goat
(1)
N/A
(1)
Ovine
(1)
Primate - Callitrix jacchus (Common Marmoset)
(1)
Primate - Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating Monkey or Cynomolgus Macaque)
(1)
Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
(1)
Xenopus
(4)
All Species
Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 342. Show All 342 Publications.
Publications using 338-AC Applications Species
JJ Weyers, JJ Gunaje, B Van Biber, A Martinson, H Reinecke, WM Mahoney, SM Schwartz, TC Cox, CE Murry Sonic Hedgehog upregulation does not enhance the survival and engraftment of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in infarcted hearts PLoS ONE, 2020;15(1):e0227780. 2020 [PMID: 31945113] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
J Bauer, MAB Emon, JJ Staudacher, AL Thomas, J Zessner-Sp, G Mancinelli, N Krett, MT Saif, B Jung Increased stiffness of the tumor microenvironment in colon cancer stimulates cancer associated fibroblast-mediated prometastatic activin A signaling Sci Rep, 2020;10(1):50. 2020 [PMID: 31919369] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
M Shinohara, H Choi, M Ibuki, SG Yabe, H Okochi, A Miyajima, Y Sakai Endodermal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells using simple dialysis culture system in suspension culture Regen Ther, 2019;12(0):14-19. 2019 [PMID: 31890762] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
K Matsuura, M Wada, K Sakaguchi, Y Matsuhashi, T Shimizu Adequate taylor couette flow-mediated shear stress is useful for dissociating human iPS cell-derived cell aggregates Regen Ther, 2019;12(0):6-13. 2019 [PMID: 31890761] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
K Kawai, R Negoro, M Ichikawa, T Yamashita, S Deguchi, K Harada, K Hirata, K Takayama, H Mizuguchi Establishment of SLC15A1/PEPT1-Knockout Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Line for Intestinal Drug Absorption Studies Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev, 2020;17(0):49-57. 2020 [PMID: 31890740] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
T Pan, Y Chen, Y Zhuang, F Yang, Y Xu, J Tao, K You, N Wang, Y Wu, X Lin, F Wu, Y Liu, Y Li, G Wang, YX Li Synergistic modulation of signaling pathways to expand and maintain the bipotency of human hepatoblasts Stem Cell Res Ther, 2019;10(1):364. 2019 [PMID: 31791391] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
M Chen, M Maimaitili, SH Buchholdt, UB Jensen, F Febbraro, M Denham Generation of eight human induced pluripotent stem cell lines from Parkinson&#039;s disease patients carrying familial mutations Stem Cell Res, 2019;42(0):101657. 2019 [PMID: 31786474] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
W Liang, P Han, EH Kim, J Mak, R Zhang, AG Torrente, JI Goldhaber, E Marbán, HC Cho Canonical Wnt signaling promotes pacemaker cell specification of cardiac mesodermal cells derived from mouse and human embryonic stem cells Stem Cells, 2019;0(0):. 2019 [PMID: 31648393] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
J Ge, H Sun, J Li, Y Shan, Y Zhao, F Liao, Y Yang, X Cui, Z Liu Involvement of CHOP in activin A?induced myeloma NS?1 cell apoptosis Oncol. Rep., 2019;0(0):. 2019 [PMID: 31638256] (In Vivo, Mouse) In Vivo Mouse
T Yung, F Poon, M Liang, S Coquenlorg, EC McGaugh, CC Hui, MD Wilson, MC Nostro, TH Kim Sufu- and Spop-mediated downregulation of Hedgehog signaling promotes beta cell differentiation through organ-specific niche signals Nat Commun, 2019;10(1):4647. 2019 [PMID: 31604927] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Show All 342 Publications.

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Gene Symbol INHBA
Uniprot
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