Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A Protein, CF


1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing single bands at 14 kDa and 24 kDa, more
Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A (Catalog # 338-AC/CF) induces hemoglobin expression in K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. The ED50 is 0.2‑1.2 ng/mL.
BG01V human embryonic stem cells were differentiated into endoderm using media supplemented with Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A (Catalog # 338-AC). Control cells were cultured in medium without recombinant more

Product Details

Reactivity Hu, Mu, RtSpecies Glossary
Applications Bioactivity

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Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A Protein, CF Summary

Additional Information
CHO derived
Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to induce hemoglobin expression in K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. Schwall, R.H. et al. (1991) Method Enzymol. 198:340. The ED50 for this effect is 0.2-1.2 ng/mL.
The specific activity of Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A is approximately 2.5 x 103 units/mg, which is calibrated against human Activin A WHO International Standard (NIBSC code: 91/626).   Specific activity is for reference purposes only and is not routinely tested.  
Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived Activin A protein
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Structure / Form
Disulfide-linked homodimer
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
>95%, by SDS-PAGE with silver staining.
Endotoxin Note
<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


Theoretical MW
13 kDa (monomer).
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
14 kDa, reducing conditions
24 kDa, non-reducing conditions
Read Publications using
338-AC/CF in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA.
>95%, by SDS-PAGE with silver staining.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 100-500 µg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl.


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A Protein, CF

  • Activin A
  • activin AB alpha polypeptide
  • Activin beta-A chain
  • erythroid differentiation factor
  • Erythroid differentiation protein
  • follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing protein
  • FSH-releasing protein
  • inhibin beta A chain
  • inhibin beta A subunit
  • Inhibin, beta-1


Activin and Inhibin are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines and are involved in a wide range of biological processes including tissue morphogenesis and repair, fibrosis, inflammation, neural development, hematopoiesis, reproductive system function, and carcinogenesis (1‑7). Activin and Inhibin are produced as precursor proteins. Their amino terminal propeptides are proteolytically cleaved and facilitate formation of disulfide-linked dimers of the bioactive proteins (8, 9). Activins are nonglycosylated homodimers or heterodimers of various beta subunits ( beta A, beta B, beta C, and beta E in mammals), while Inhibins are heterodimers of a unique alpha subunit and one of the beta subunits. Activin A is a widely expressed homodimer of two beta A chains. The beta A subunit can also heterodimerize with a beta B or beta C subunit to form Activin AB and Activin AC, respectively (10). The 14 kDa mature human beta A chain shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with bovine, feline, mouse, porcine, and rat beta A. Activin A exerts its biological activities by binding to the type 2 serine/threonine kinase Activin RIIA which then noncovalently associates with the type 1 serine/threonine kinase Activin RIB/ALK-4 (7, 11). Signaling through this receptor complex leads to Smad activation and regulation of activin-responsive gene transcription (7, 11). The bioactivity of Activin A is regulated by a variety of mechanisms (11). BAMBI, Betaglycan, and Cripto are cell‑associated molecules that function as decoy receptors or limit the ability of Activin A to induce receptor complex assembly (12‑14). The intracellular formation of Activin A can be prevented by the incorporation of the beta A subunit into Activin AC or Inhibin A (3, 10). And the bioavailability of Activin A is restricted by its incorporation into inactive complexes with alpha 2-Macroglobulin, Follistatin, and FLRG (15, 16).
  1. Kumanov, P. et al. (2005) Reprod. Biomed. Online 10:786.
  2. Maeshima, A. et al. (2008) Endocr. J. 55:1.
  3. Rodgarkia-Dara, C. et al. (2006) Mutat. Res. 613:123.
  4. Werner, S. and C. Alzheimer (2006) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 17:157.
  5. Xu, P. and A.K. Hall (2006) Dev. Biol. 299:303.
  6. Shav-Tal, Y. and D. Zipori (2002) Stem Cells 20:493.
  7. Chen, Y.G. et al. (2006) Exp. Biol. Med. 231:534.
  8. Gray, A.M. and A.J. Mason (1990) Science 247:1328.
  9. Mason, A.J. et al. (1996) Mol. Endocrinol. 10:1055.
  10. Thompson, T.B. et al. (2004) Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 225:9.
  11. Harrison, C.A. et al. (2005) Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 16:73.
  12. Onichtchouk, D. et al. (1999) Nature 401:480.
  13. Gray, P.C. et al. (2002) Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 188:254.
  14. Kelber, J.A. et al. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283:4490.
  15. Phillips, D.J. et al. (1997) J. Endocrinol. 155:65.
  16. Schneyer, A. et al. (2003) Endocrinology 144:1671.

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Publications for Activin A (338-AC/CF)(395)

We have publications tested in 12 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, Rat, Bovine, Chicken, Goat, N/A, Ovine, Primate - Callitrix jacchus (Common Marmoset), Primate - Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating Monkey or Cynomolgus Macaque), Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque), Xenopus.

We have publications tested in 8 applications: Bioassay, Cell Culture, Differentiation, ELISA (Standard), Flow Cytometry, In Vivo, Stimulation, Surface Plasmon Resonance.

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ELISA (Standard)
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Primate - Callitrix jacchus (Common Marmoset)
Primate - Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating Monkey or Cynomolgus Macaque)
Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 395. Show All 395 Publications.
Publications using 338-AC/CF Applications Species
S Mishra, J Taelman, YW Chang, A Boel, P De Sutter, B Heindryckx, SM Chuva De S Sex-Specific Isolation and Propagation of Human Premeiotic Fetal Germ Cells and Germ Cell-Like Cells Cells, 2021;10(5):. 2021 [PMID: 34065661] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture Human
L Preisler, A Habib, G Shapira, L Kuznitsov-, Y Mayshar, I Carmel-Gro, M Malcov, F Azem, N Shomron, R Kariv, D Hershkovit, D Ben-Yosef Heterozygous APC germline mutations impart predisposition to colorectal cancer Scientific Reports, 2021;11(1):5113. 2021 [PMID: 33664379] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
AL Rodrigues, HY Liu, YW Chen, M Porotto, A Moscona, HW Snoeck The in vitro multilineage differentiation and maturation of lung and airway cells from human pluripotent stem cell-derived lung progenitors in 3D Nature Protocols, 2021;0(0):. 2021 [PMID: 33649566] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
H Kadokawa, M Kotaniguch, O Kereilwe, S Kitamura Reduced gonadotroph stimulation by ethanolamine plasmalogens in old bovine brains Scientific Reports, 2021;11(1):4757. 2021 [PMID: 33637828] (Bioassay, Bovine) Bioassay Bovine
N Katagiri, H Hitomi, SI Mae, M Kotaka, L Lei, T Yamamoto, A Nishiyama, K Osafune Retinoic acid regulates erythropoietin production cooperatively with hypoxia-inducible factors in human iPSC-derived erythropoietin-producing cells Scientific Reports, 2021;11(1):3936. 2021 [PMID: 33594180] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
A Mischler, V Karakis, J Mahinthaku, CK Carberry, A San Miguel, JE Rager, RC Fry, BM Rao Two distinct trophectoderm lineage stem cells from human pluripotent stem cells The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2021;0(0):100386. 2021 [PMID: 33556374] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
S Barbeau, R Desprat, B Eymard, C Martinat, JM Lemaitre, C Legay Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line (iPSC) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a patient with a myasthenic syndrome due to mutation in COLQ Stem Cell Research, 2020;49(0):102106. 2020 [PMID: 33370874] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
A Hagg, S Kharoud, G Goodchild, CA Goodman, JL Chen, RE Thomson, H Qian, P Gregorevic, CA Harrison, KL Walton TMEPAI/PMEPA1 Is a Positive Regulator of Skeletal Muscle Mass Front Physiol, 2020;11(0):560225. 2020 [PMID: 33250771] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
L Jiang, B Liu, Y Qi, L Zhu, X Cui, Z Liu Antagonistic effects of activin A and TNF-&amp;alpha on the activation of L929 fibroblast cells via Smad3-independent signaling Sci Rep, 2020;10(1):20623. 2020 [PMID: 33244088] (Cell Culture, Mouse) Cell Culture Mouse
RM Samuel, H Majd, MN Richter, Z Ghazizadeh, SM Zekavat, A Navickas, JT Ramirez, H Asgharian, CR Simoneau, LR Bonser, KD Koh, M Garcia-Kni, M Tassetto, S Sunshine, S Farahvashi, A Kalantari, W Liu, R Andino, H Zhao, P Natarajan, DJ Erle, M Ott, H Goodarzi, F Fattahi Androgen Signaling Regulates SARS-CoV-2 Receptor Levels and Is Associated with Severe COVID-19 Symptoms in Men Cell Stem Cell, 2020;27(6):876-889.e12. 2020 [PMID: 33232663] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Show All 395 Publications.

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Gene Symbol INHBA