Recombinant Human Latent TGF-beta 1 Protein


Recombinant Human Latent TGF-beta beta 1 (Catalog # 299-LT) after acid activation inhibits Recombinant Mouse IL‑4 (Catalog # 404-ML) induced cell proliferation in the HT-2 mouse T cell line. The ED50 for this effect more
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human Latent TGF‑ beta 1 was resolved with SDS-PAGE underreducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by silverstaining,showing bands at 11, 36-42 kDa (R) and 24, 80-95 kDa more

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Recombinant Human Latent TGF-beta 1 Protein Summary

Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to inhibit the IL-4-dependent proliferation of HT‑2 mouse T cells. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389. The ED50 for this effect is 10-70 ng/mL before acid activation and 0.15‑0.9 ng/mL after acid activation.
Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived human TGF-beta 1 protein
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Leu30 (LAP) & Ala279 (Mature)
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Endotoxin Note
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


Theoretical MW
28.5 kDa (LAP) & 12.8 kDa (Mature), Monomer.
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
36-42 kDa & 11 kDa, reducing conditions
80-95 kDa & 24 kDa, non-reducing conditions
Read Publications using
299-LT in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after opening.
  • 3 months, ≤ -20 °C under sterile conditions after opening.
Supplied as a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS and Glycerol with BSA as a carrier protein.
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human Latent TGF-beta 1 Protein

  • DPD1
  • latency-associated peptide
  • TGF beta1
  • TGFB
  • TGFB1
  • TGF-beta 1 protein
  • TGFbeta 1
  • TGF-beta 1
  • TGFbeta
  • TGF-beta-1
  • transforming growth factor beta-1
  • transforming growth factor, beta 1


TGF-  beta 1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) and the closely related TGF-beta 2 and -3 are members of the large TGF-beta  superfamily. TGF-  beta proteins are highly pleiotropic cytokines that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (1-3). Human TGF-beta 1 cDNA encodes a 390 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 29 aa signal peptide and a 361 aa proprotein (4). A furin-like convertase processes the proprotein within the trans-Golgi to generate an N‑terminal 249 aa latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a C-terminal 112 aa mature TGF-beta 1 (4-6). Disulfide-linked homodimers of LAP and TGF-beta 1 remain non‑covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF-beta 1 complex (4-8). Purified LAP is also capable of associating with active TGF-beta with high affinity, and can neutralize TGF-beta activity (9). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (5-7). TGF-beta activation from latency is controlled both spatially and temporally, by multiple pathways that include actions of proteases such as plasmin and MMP9, and/or by thrombospondin 1 or selected integrins (5, 8). The LAP portion of human TGF-beta 1 shares 91%, 92%, 85%, 86% and 88% aa identity with porcine, canine, mouse, rat and equine TGF-beta 1 LAP, respectively, while the mature human TGF-beta 1 portion shares 100% aa identity with procine, canine and bovine TGF-beta 1, and 99% aa identity with mouse, rat and equine TGF-beta 1. Although different isoforms of TGF-beta are naturally associated with their own distinct LAPs, the TGF-beta 1 LAP is capable of complexing with, and inactivating, all other human TGF-beta isoforms and those of most other species (9). Mutations within the LAP are associated with Camurati-Engelmann disease, a rare sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by inappropriate presence of active TGF-beta 1 (10).

  1. Dunker, N. and K. Krieglstein (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
  2. Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
  3. Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
  4. Derynck, R. et al. (1985) Nature 316:701.
  5. Dabovic, B. and D.B. Rifkin (2008) “TGF-beta Bioavailability” in The TGF-beta Family. Derynck, R. and K. Miyazono (eds): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, p. 179.
  6. Brunner, A.M. et al. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264:13660.
  7. Miyazono, K. et al. (1991) EMBO J. 10:1091.
  8. Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
  9. Miller, D.M. et al. (1992) Mol. Endocrinol. 6:694.
  10. Janssens, K. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278:7718.

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Publications for TGF-beta 1 (299-LT)(12)

We have publications tested in 4 confirmed species: Human, Mouse, N/A, Porcine.

We have publications tested in 5 applications: Activation, Binding Assay, Bioassay, Surface Plasmon Resonance, Western Blot.

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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 12. Show All 12 Publications.
Publications using 299-LT Applications Species
L Guo, Y Hou, L Song, S Zhu, F Lin, Y Bai D-Mannose Enhanced Immunomodulation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells via Inhibiting IL-6 Secretion Stem Cells Int, 2018;2018(0):7168231. 2018 [PMID: 30271438] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
F Pan, H Xiang, J Yan, L Hong, L Zhang, Y Liu, X Feng, C Cai Dendritic cells from rheumatoid arthritis patient peripheral blood induce Th17 cell differentiation via miR-363/Integrin ?v/TGF-? axis Scand. J. Immunol., 2017;0(0):. 2017 [PMID: 28376277] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
PSG9 Stimulates Increase in FoxP3+ Regulatory T-Cells through the TGF-?1 Pathway PLoS ONE, 2016;11(7):e0158050. 2016 [PMID: 27389696] (Surface Plasmon Resonance, Human) Surface Plasmon Resonance Human
Zhang J, Wong M, Wong M, Gross S, Chen J, Pollock C, Saad S A cationic-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor inhibitor (PXS64) ameliorates kidney fibrosis by inhibiting activation of transforming growth factor-beta1. PLoS ONE, 2015;10(2):e0116888. 2015 [PMID: 25658916] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Ballesteros A, Mentink-Kane M, Warren J, Kaplan G, Dveksler G Induction and activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta1 are carried out by two distinct domains of pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 1 (PSG1). J Biol Chem, 2015;290(7):4422-31. 2015 [PMID: 25548275] (Surface Plasmon Resonance, Human) Surface Plasmon Resonance Human
Tulley S, Chen W Transcriptional regulation of seprase in invasive melanoma cells by transforming growth factor-beta signaling. J Biol Chem, 2014;289(22):15280-96. 2014 [PMID: 24727589] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Jelicic K, Cimbro R, Nawaz F, Huang D, Zheng X, Yang J, Lempicki R, Pascuccio M, Van Ryk D, Schwing C, Hiatt J, Okwara N, Wei D, Roby G, David A, Hwang I, Kehrl J, Arthos J, Cicala C, Fauci A The HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 impairs B cell proliferation by inducing TGF-beta1 production and FcRL4 expression. Nat Immunol, 2013;14(12):1256-65. 2013 [PMID: 24162774] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Gonzalez-Quesada C, Cavalera M, Biernacka A, Kong P, Lee D, Saxena A, Frunza O, Dobaczewski M, Shinde A, Frangogiannis N Thrombospondin-1 induction in the diabetic myocardium stabilizes the cardiac matrix in addition to promoting vascular rarefaction through angiopoietin-2 upregulation. Circ Res, 2013;113(12):1331-44. 2013 [PMID: 24081879] (Bioassay, Mouse) Bioassay Mouse
Ma W, Han W, Greer PA, Tuder RM, Toque HA, Wang KK, Caldwell RW, Su Y Calpain mediates pulmonary vascular remodeling in rodent models of pulmonary hypertension, and its inhibition attenuates pathologic features of disease. J. Clin. Invest., 2011;121(11):4548-66. 2011 [PMID: 22005303] (Activation, Porcine) Activation Porcine
Stockis J, Colau D, Coulie PG, Lucas S Membrane protein GARP is a receptor for latent TGF-beta on the surface of activated human Treg. Eur. J. Immunol., 2009;39(12):3315-22. 2009 [PMID: 19750484] (Binding Assay, Human) Binding Assay Human
Show All 12 Publications.

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Gene Symbol TGFB1