Recombinant Human Dkk-1 Biotinylated Protein

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Recombinant Human Wnt‑3a (Catalog # 5036-WN) induces a dose responsive increase in Wnt reporter activity in HEK293 cells (green circles). Recombinant Biotinylated Human Dkk-1 ...read more

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Summary
Reactivity HuSpecies Glossary
Applications Bioactivity

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Recombinant Human Dkk-1 Biotinylated Protein Summary

Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to inhibit Wnt induced TCF reporter activity in HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells. Biotinylated Recombinant Human Dkk-1 (Catalog # BT5439) inhibits a constant dose of 500 ng/mL of Recombinant Human Wnt‑3a (Catalog # 5036-WN). The ED50 for this effect is 10-60 ng/mL.
Source
Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf 21 (baculovirus)-derived human Dkk-1 protein
Thr32-His266
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Thr32
Structure / Form
Monomer, biotinylated via sugars
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
Gene
DKK1
Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE with silver staining.
Endotoxin Note
<1.0 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.

Applications/Dilutions

Theoretical MW
26 kDa (unlabeled).
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
SDS-PAGE
33-38 kDa, reducing conditions

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Buffer
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE with silver staining.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.

Notes

This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human Dkk-1 Biotinylated Protein

  • dickkopf (Xenopus laevis) homolog 1
  • dickkopf homolog 1 (Xenopus laevis)
  • dickkopf related protein-1
  • Dickkopf-1
  • dickkopf-related protein 1
  • Dkk1
  • Dkk-1
  • hDkk-1
  • SKdickkopf-1 like

Background

Dickkopf related protein 1 (Dkk-1) is the founding member of the Dickkopf family of proteins that includes Dkk-1, -2, -3, -4, and a related protein, Soggy (1, 2). Dkk proteins are secreted proteins that contain two conserved cysteine-rich domains (CRDs) separated by a linker region. Each domain contains ten cysteine residues (1-3). Mature human Dkk-1 is a 40 kDa glycosylated protein that shares 83% amino acid sequence identity with mouse and rat Dkk-1. Dkk-1 is a well-characterized antagonist of Wnt/beta-Catenin signaling (1, 2, 4, 5). This pathway is activated by Wnt engagement of a receptor complex composed of the Frizzled proteins and one of two low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins, LRP-5 or LRP-6 (4). Crystallographic studies have shown that Dkk-1 interacts with LRP-6 as a bipartite inhibitor, with both CRDs binding the extracellular domain of LRP-6 simultaneously (4, 6-8). Dkk-1/LRP-6/Krm2 complex internalization has been shown to down-regulate Wnt signaling (4, 9). Dkk-1 is expressed throughout development and antagonizes Wnt-7a during limb development (10, 11). Other sites of expression include developing neurons, hair follicles, and the retina (12, 13). The balance between Wnt signaling and Dkk-1 inhibition is critical for bone formation and homeostasis (14). Insufficient or excess Dkk-1 activity in bone results in increased or decreased bone density, respectively (12, 15). In adults, Dkk-1 is expressed in osteoblasts and osteocytes, and neurons. Cerebral ischemia induces Dkk-1 expression, which contributes to neuronal cell death (16). Dkk-1 also likely has a complex role in cancer, as it has been shown to act as a tumor suppressor and also to promote metastasis (17-19).

  1. Krupnik, V.E. et al. (1999) Gene 238:301.
  2. Niehrs, C. (2006) Oncogene 25:7469.
  3. Bullock, C.M. et al. (2004) Mol. Pharmacol. 65:582.
  4. Mao, B. et al. (2001) Nature 411:321.
  5. Brott, B.K. and S.Y. Sokol (2002) Mol. Cell. Biol. 22:6100.
  6. Chen, S. et al. (2011) Dev. Cell 21:848.
  7. Bourhis, E. et al. (2011) Structure 19:1433.
  8. Cheng, Z. et al. (2011) Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 18:1204.
  9. Mao, B. et al. (2002) Nature 417:664.
  10. Kemp, C. et al. (2005) Dev. Dyn. 233:1064.
  11. Adamska, M. et al. (2004) Dev. Biol. 272:134.
  12. Li, J. et al. (2006) Bone 39:754.
  13. Verani, R. et al. (2007) J. Neurochem. 100:242.
  14. Pinzone, J.J. et al. (2009) Blood 113:517.
  15. Morvan, F. et al. (2006) J. Bone Miner. Res. 21:934.
  16. Cappuccio, I. et al. (2005) J. Neurosci. 25:2647.
  17. Menezes, M.E. et al. (2012) Int. J. Cancer 130:1477.
  18. Li, S. et al. (2013) PLoS One 8:e84944.
  19. Chen, L. et al. (2013) Mol. Cancer 12:157.

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Bioinformatics

Gene Symbol DKK1
Uniprot