Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
Immunogen affinity purified
Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.
Alternate Names for Dkk-2 Antibody
dickkopf (Xenopus laevis) homolog 2
dickkopf homolog 2 (Xenopus laevis)
dickkopf related protein-2
dickkopf-related protein 2
Dickkopf related protein 2 (Dkk-2) is a member of the Dickkopf family of secreted Wnt modulators (1-3). Dkk proteins contain a signal peptide and two conserved cysteine-rich domains that are separated by a linker region. The second cysteine-rich domain, which shows a configuration of cysteines conserved in prokineticin and colipase families, mediates Dkk-2 binding activities (2-4). The 226 amino acid (aa), ~35 kDa mature mouse Dkk-2 shares 41% and 34% aa identity with mouse Dkk-1 and Dkk-4, respectively. It also shares 99%, 96%, 96%, 96% and 94% aa identity with rat, human, canine, equine and bovine Dkk-2, respectively, and can activate the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in Xenopus embryos (5). Dkk proteins modify Wnt engagement of a receptor complex composed of a Frizzled protein and a low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein, either LRP5 or LRP6 (3). When LRP6 is overexpressed, direct high-affinity binding of Dkk-2 to LRP can enhance canonical Wnt signaling (6-8). However, when Dkk-2 and LRP6 form a ternary complex with Kremen2, Wnt signaling is inhibited due to internalization of Dkk-2/LRP6/Krm2 complexes (9, 10). Thus, depending on the cellular context, Dkk-2 can either activate or inhibit canonical Wnt signaling (3). In contrast, binding of Dkk-1 or Dkk-4 to LRP is consistently antagonistic (3). Dkk proteins are expressed in mesenchymal tissues and control epithelial transformations. Dkk-2 expression has been studied most in bone and eye. Mouse Dkk-1 or Dkk-2 deficiencies have opposite effects on bone homeostasis, despite downregulating Wnt antagonism in both cases (11, 12). Dkk-2 expression is induced by Wnts in bone, and is thought to enhance bone density by promoting terminal differentiation of osteoblasts and mineral deposition (11). In contrast, Dkk-1 negatively regulates late osteoblast proliferation, which limits bone density (12). Dkk-2-deficient mice are blind due to faulty differentiation of corneal epithelium (13).
Monaghan, A.P. et al. (1999) Mech. Dev. 87:45.
Krupnik, V.E. et al. (1999) Gene 238:301.
Niehrs, C. (2006) Oncogene 25:7469.
Bullock, C.M. et al. (2004) Mol. Pharmacol. 65:582.
Wu, W. et al. (2000) Current Biol. 10:1611.
Mao, B. et al. (2001) Nature 411:321.
Li, L. et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277:5977.
Brott, B. and S.Y. Sokol (2002) Mol. Cell. Biol. 22:6100.
Mao, B. et al. (2002) Nature 417:664.
Mao, B. and C. Niehrs (2003) Gene 302:179.
Li, X. et al. (2005) Nat. Genet. 37:945.
Morvan, F. et al. (2006) J. Bone Miner. Res. 21:934.
Mukhopadhyay, M. et al. (2006) Development 133:2149.
This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt.
The concentration calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume, mass or concentration of your vial. Simply enter your mass, volume, or concentration values for your reagent and the calculator will determine the rest.
Review this Product
Be the first to review our Dkk-2 Antibody and receive a gift card or discount.
PRODUCT AVAILABILITY: Update Regarding the Evolving COVID-19 Situation
Bio-Techne appreciates the critical role that you and our products and services play in research efforts to further scientific innovation and discovery. We are continually assessing our manufacturing and supplier capabilities during the COVID-19 situation and are implementing precautionary measures to ensure uninterrupted supply of products and services. Currently, and as we abide by local shelter in place orders across the world, we are fully operational and do not anticipate any material supply disruptions across our Bio-Techne brands and product lines. As the situation evolves, our goal is to utilize preventive measures to reduce the threat that COVID-19 poses to our ability to meet the needs of our customers globally.