>95%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
23.7 kDa (p35), 36.2 kDa (p40). Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is a 75 kDa heterodimeric glycoprotein that is composed of the disulfide-linked 35 kDa (p35) and 40 kDa (p40) subunits. Whereas p35 is an alpha -helical protein related to IL-6, the p40 subunit belongs to the type I cytokine receptor family. The feline IL-12 p35 gene encodes a 222 amino acids (aa) precursor protein with a 25 aa signal peptide. Mature feline p35 contains four potential N-linked glycosylation sites and one intrachain disulfide bond. p35 is synthesized constitutively but can be upregulated by the class II MHC-TCR interaction. p35 is never secreted unbound to p40. Mature feline p35 shows 91%, 88%, 86%, 57%, 56% and 75% aa identity with canine, human, porcine, rat, mouse and guinea pig p35, respectively. The feline p40 gene encodes a secreted 329 aa precursor protein with a 22 aa signal peptide. Mature feline p40 contains one fibronectin type III and one Ig C2-like domain. It is known to exist as a monomer, a homodimer, and as heterodimers linked either to p35 to form IL-12, or to p19 to create IL-23. p40 synthesis is upregulated by many different inflammatory signals including LPS and CpG. Mature feline p40 shows 94%, 85%, 85%, 67%, 67% and 76% aa identity to canine, human, porcine, rat, mouse and guinea pig p40, respectively. Cells known to produce IL-12 include macrophages, dendritic cells, monocytes, Langerhans cells, neutrophils, and keratinocytes. The signaling receptor for IL-12 is composed of two type I transmembrane glycoproteins belonging to the type I cytokine receptor superfamily. IL-12 receptor beta 1 (IL-12 R beta 1) is 100 kDa protein that serves as the principal binding site for the p40 subunit. IL-12 receptor beta 2 (IL-12 R beta 2) is 130 kDa protein that interacts primarily with p35 and functions as the signal transducing component. IL-12 facilitates hematopoietic stem cell proliferation, induces NK cell proliferation, promotes IgG production (in mice), and potentiates the expansion and late activation of Th1 CD4+ T cells (1 - 5).
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Park, A.Y. and P. Scott (2001) Scand. J. Immunol. 53:529.
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Brombacher, F. et al. (2003) Trends Immunol. 24:207.
Lankford, C.S. and D.M. Frucht (2003) J. Leukoc. Biol. 73:49.
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